JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56941
FullText URL 73_4_373.pdf
Author Oda, Yoshiaki| Yamauchi, Tarou| Tanaka, Masato|
Abstract A minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedure is an ideal surgical procedure. Many MIS techniques have been reported in spinal surgery. In clinical practice, we often encounter two-level canal stenosis cases, in which one level shows instability and the other does not. In such a case, fusion surgery for one level and decompression surgery for the other level is ideal. LLIF/OLIF approached from the lateral side has been reported effective. MIS decompression techniques in the lateral decubitus position have never been reported. We devised a surgical method that can accomplish both fixation and decompression in a consistent lateral decubitus position.
Keywords microendoscopic surgery lateral position navigation minimally invasive surgery image free
Amo Type Case Report
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 373
End Page 377
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56940
FullText URL 73_4_367.pdf
Author Mifune-Morioka, Tomoyo| A. Uchida, Haruhito| Fukushima, Kazuhiko| Watanabe, Mayu| Ouchi, Chihiro| Mise, Koki| Kawakita, Chieko| Kano, Yuzuki| Onishi, Akifumi| Toma, Kishio| Eguchi, Jun| Wada, Nozomu| Ikeda, Fusao| Sasaki, Erika| Suganami, Yu| Kishida, Masayuki| Sugiyama, Hitoshi| Okada, Hiroyuki| Wada, Jun|
Abstract Eight years prior to her present admission, a 61-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis, slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and chronic thyroiditis; she had been treated with oral prednisolone (PSL). After she suddenly discontinued PSL, she newly developed systemic lupus erythematosus. A combination therapy of oral PSL and intravenous cyclophosphamide resulted in remission. She was finally diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 3 (3A ,3B, 3D), complicated with four different autoimmune diseases. Since patients with type 3 APS may present many manifestations over a long period of time, they should be carefully monitored.
Keywords autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 systemic lupus erythematosus autoimmune hepatitis slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus chronic thyroiditis
Amo Type Case Report
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 367
End Page 372
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56939
FullText URL 73_4_361.pdf
Author Watanabe, Ayako| Kadowaki, Yoshihiko| Hattori, Kenji| Ohmori, Mika| Tsukayama, Hiroyuki| Kubota, Nobuhito| Okumoto, Tatsuo| Ishido, Nobuhiro| Okino, Takeshi|
Abstract A 35-year-old man was referred to our hospital for chronic abdominal pain and diarrhea. Computed tomography showed wall thickening, poor contrast enhancement and calcification of the ascending colon, which were consistent with phlebosclerotic colitis. Malignant character was not detected from a biopsy specimen. Operatively, we observed a scirrhous mass of the ascending colon invading surrounding tissue, which was diagnosed as signet ring cell carcinoma based on analysis of an intraoperative frozen section. Right hemicolectomy with regional lymph node dissection was performed. This case was extremely similar to phlebosclerotic colitis in clinical findings; surgical resection was required for correct diagnosis.
Keywords phlebosclerotic colitis colorectal cancer signet ring cell carcinoma young colorectal cancer
Amo Type Case Report
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 361
End Page 365
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56938
FullText URL 73_4_357.pdf
Author Maeda, Naoto| Kodama, Naoki| Manda, Yosuke| Kawakami, Shigehisa| Oki, Kazuhiro| Minagi, Shogo|
Abstract We investigated the characteristics of grouped discharge (GD) waveforms obtained from long-term masseter electromyogram (EMG) recording in 6 female temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with myofascial pain and 6 healthy females. The EMG measurement was performed from the morning of the experiment day until the subject woke up the next day. We observed a significantly larger number of GD waveforms in the TMD group compared to the control group (p=0.002). Our results indicate that the existence of GD waveforms in masseter EMGs might be a predictor of future TMD with myofascial pain.
Keywords temporomandibular disorder grouped discharge masseter muscle electromyography
Amo Type Short Communication
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 357
End Page 360
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56937
FullText URL 73_4_349.pdf
Author Isozaki, Hiroshi| Yamamoto, Yasuhisa| Murakami, Shigeki| Matsumoto, Sasau| Takama, Takehiro|
Abstract To clarify the surgical outcomes of breast cancer patients with a preoperative diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by core needle biopsy (CNB) (abbreviated as CNBDCIS), we retrospectively analyzed the cases of 131 patients with CNBDCIS who underwent surgery at Oomoto Hospital (32 total mastectomies, 99 conservative mastectomies). Our analysis of underestimation and predictors of invasive breast cancer of CNBDCIS revealed that the underestimation rate of CNBDCIS was 40.5% (53/131). A logistic regression analysis revealed that palpable tumors (yes to no, odds ratio [OR] 3.25), mammography (MMG) category group (category 4 or 5 to categories 1 , 2, or 3, OR 4.69) and MMG microcalcifications (no to yes, OR 0.24) were significant predictive factors for CNBDCIS invasion. In our analysis of the predictors of positive margins during CNBDCIS surgery, 36 (27.5%) of the 131 patients had positive margins after postoperative pathological examination. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the operative procedure (conservative surgery to total mastectomy, OR 21.4) and MMG microcalcifications (yes to no, OR 3.35) were significant factors related to positive margins during CNBDCIS surgery. Thus, MMG microcalcifications are a negative predictor of upgrading of CNBDCIS and a positive predictor of positive surgical margins for CNBDCIS.
Keywords ductal carcinoma in situ core needle biopsy underestimation positive margins microcalcifications on mammography
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 349
End Page 356
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56936
FullText URL 73_4_341.pdf
Author Kitajima, Kazuhiro| Yamamoto, Shingo| Nakanishi, Yukako| Yamada, Yusuke| Hashimoto, Takahiko| Suzuki, Toru| Go, Shuken| Kanematsu, Akihiro| Nojima, Michio| Fujiwara, Masayuki| Kaida, Hayato| Tsurusaki, Masakatsu| Kanda, Tomonori| Tamaki, Yukihisa | Yamakado, Koichiro|
Abstract We investigated the effectiveness of 11C-choline-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluating treatment response in patients with prostate cancer or renal cell carcinoma. We performed 34 11C-choline PET/CT scans before/after a combined total of 17 courses of treatment in 6 patients with prostate cancer and 2 with renal cell carcinoma. The 17 treatments including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radium-223, molecular target therapy, radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial embolization, and cancer immunotherapy yielded 1 (5.9%) complete metabolic response (CMR), 3 (17.6%) partial metabolic responses (PMRs), 2 (11.8%) stable metabolic diseases (SMDs), and 11 (64.7%) progressive metabolic diseases (PMDs). Target lesions were observed in bone (n=14), lymph nodes (n=5), lung (n=2), prostate (n=2), and pleura (n=1), with CMR in 4, PMR in 10, SMD in 8 and PMD in 2 lesions. SUVmax values of the target lesions before and after treatment were 7.87±2.67 and 5.29±3.98, respectively, for a mean reduction of −35.4±43.6%. The response for the 8 prostate cancer-treatment courses was PMD, which correlated well with changes in serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) (7 of 8 cases showed increased PSA). 11C-choline-PET/CT may be an effective tool for detecting viable residual tumors and evaluating treatment response in prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma patients.
Keywords treatment response 11C-choline PET/CT prostate cancer renal cell carcinoma
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 341
End Page 347
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56935
FullText URL 73_4_333.pdf
Author Kuwaki, Kenji| Nouso, Kazuhiro| Miyashita, Manabi| Makino, Yasuhiro| Hagihara, Hiroaki| Moriya, Akio| Adachi, Takuya| Wada, Nozomu| Yasunaka, Yuki| Yasunaka, Tetsuya| Takeuchi, Yasuto| Onishi, Hideki| Nakamura, Shinichiro| Ikeda, Fusao| Shiraha, Hidenori| Takaki, Akinobu| Okada, Hiroyuki|
Abstract Steroids are often administered at the time of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), a standard treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the expectation of preventing postembolization syndrome. Here we investigated the precise effects of steroids on TACE. We prospectively enrolled 144 HCC patients from 10 hospitals who underwent TACE. Three hospitals used steroids (steroid group, n=77) and the rest did not routinely use steroids (control group, n=67). The occurrence of adverse events and the algetic degree at 1-5 days post-treatment were compared between the groups. Fever (grades 0-2) after TACE was significantly less in the steroid group (56/21/0) compared to the control group (35/29/3, p=0.005, Cochran-Armitage test for trend). The suppressive effect of steroids against fever was prominent in females (p=0.001). Vomiting (G0/G1/ G2-) was also less frequent in the steroid group (70/5/2) versus the control group (53/10/3), but not significantly (p=0.106). The algetic degree and the grade of hematological adverse events, including hyperglycemia, did not differ between the groups. We conclude that the administration of steroids was useful for the prevention of adverse events after TACE in patients with HCC.
Keywords antipyretic hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutic chemoembolization steroid
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 333
End Page 339
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56934
FullText URL 73_4_325.pdf
Author Ueno, Tsuyoshi| Maki, Yuho| Sugimoto, Ryujiro| Suehisa, Hiroshi| Yamashita, Motohiro| Harada, Daijiro| Kozuki, Toshiyuki| Nogami, Naoyuki|
Abstract Therapeutic approaches to bronchopleural fistula (BPF) closure after lung resection are surgical or endoscopic interventions. We evaluated therapeutic outcomes to determine the optimal approach. We reviewed 15 patients who had developed BPF after lung resection for thoracic malignant diseases at our institution in the 10 years since 2008. The patients were 11 men and 4 women (mean age 68 years). We performed one pneumonectomy, 6 lobectomies, 7 segmentectomies, and one partial resection for malignant diseases. The median interval from lung resection to the BPF diagnosis was 46 days. The BPF-associated mortality rate was 26.7% (4/15). The rate of successful BPF closure was 66.6% (10/15). The endoscopic and surgical intervention success rates were 14.2% (1/7) and 69.2% (9/13), respectively (p<0.01). Of 5 patients who had failed BPF treatments, 4 died, and one transferred out without BPF closure. The therapeutic outcomes were related to preoperative comorbidities, performance status at the BPF diagnosis, time intervals from lung resection to BPF diagnosis, and presence of active pneumonia. The difference between endoscopic and surgical outcomes was nonsignificant, although the surgical intervention success rate was somewhat higher. The selection of endoscopic or surgical intervention for BPF does not significantly affect therapeutic outcomes.
Keywords bronchopleural fistula endoscopic intervention surgical intervention
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 325
End Page 331
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56933
FullText URL 73_4_315.pdf
Author Ono, Shintaro| Nakayama, Masaaki| Tachibana, Masato| Abu Saleh Muhammad Shahriar| Heling, Wang| Takashiba, Shogo| Ohara, Naoya|
Abstract The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis shows colonial pigmentation on blood agar and produces gingipains (Kgp, RgpA, and RgpB), cysteine proteases involved in an organism’s virulence and pigmentation. We showed previously that deletion of the PGN_0300 gene abolished the pigmentation activity and reduced the proteolytic activity of gingipains. The role of the PGN_0297 gene, which consists of an operon with the PGN_0300 gene, is unclear. Herein we examined the effect of PGN_0297 gene deletion on the pigmentation and proteolytic activities and transcriptional levels of gingipains. A PGN_0297 gene deletion mutant (ΔPGN_0297) did not exhibit the pigmentation. The proteolytic activity of the gingipains was decreased in the culture supernatant and on the cell surface of ΔPGN_0297. The mutant ΔPGN_0297 failed to attenuate Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473, but both phosphorylations were attenuated in the wild-type and its complementation strain. The deletion of PGN_0297 gene did not substantially affect the transcriptional levels of the gingipain genes kgp, rgpA, and rgpB. Taken together, these results indicate that PGN_0297 is closely involved in the secretion and maturation of gingipains.
Keywords periodontitis Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipain C-terminal domain secretion system
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 315
End Page 323
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56932
FullText URL 73_4_307.pdf
Author Takahashi, Sho| Akagi, Teiji| Toh, Norihisa| Takaya, Yoichi| Nakagawa, Koji| Nishii, Nobuhiro| Ito, Hiroshi|
Abstract The follow-up of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) at a specialized medical unit is necessary for the patients’ appropriate medical care. However, limited information is available about cardiovascular events among ACHD patients. Here we investigated the type and frequency of cardiovascular events in ACHD patients in relation to disease complexity. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 535 patients (median age 35 years) referred to our ACHD center between 2014 and 2017. We divided the patients into 3 groups based on their disease complexity. To evaluate the relationship between disease complexity and cardiovascular events, we performed univariate and multivariate survival analyses. The Simple, moderate, and complex disease groups accounted for 62%, 19%, and 19% of the patients, respectively. Apart from events related to atrial septal defect (ASD) trans-catheter treatment, the frequency of cardiovascular events was dependent on the disease complexity (event-free survival rates at 3 years were 85%, 65%, and 58%, respectively). The hazard ratios were 4.0 and 5.1 in the moderate and complex groups, respectively. With the exception of scheduled transcatheter intervention, cardiovascular events were strongly related to the disease complexity of original heart disease. However, cardiovascular events were not rare even in the simple ACHD group.
Keywords congenital heart defect congenital in adults hospitalization cardiovascular event
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 307
End Page 313
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56931
FullText URL 73_4_299.pdf
Author Hiranaka, Takaaki| Nishida, Keiichiro| Konishiike, Taizo| Ozaki, Toshifumi| Mikasa, Motohiko|
Abstract The fixation technique of bony fragments is crucial for the bone union of the tuberosities after humeral head replacement (HHR) for a comminuted fracture of the proximal humerus. To increase the bone union rate, we reduce tuberosities to overlap on the humeral shaft by approx. 1 cm and fix them with cable wire. Herein, we retrospectively investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of our procedure. Twenty-six patients who underwent cementless HHR for the treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus were investigated. The Constant-Murley score, active shoulder mobility, and bone union rate were evaluated. The mean duration of follow-up was 56.3 months (range 24-197). At the final follow-up, the average Constant-Murley score was 58 (range 40-76). Forward elevation was 126° on average (range 35°-180°). Twenty-three cases (88%) showed bone union between the tuberosities and the shaft at an average follow-up of 4.1 months (range 4-5 months) after surgery. Non-union was noted in 1 case, and bone resorption was noted in 2 cases. The bone union rate and the clinical outcome of our procedure were relatively favorable
Keywords humeral head replacement tuberosity-overlapping technique bone union of tuberosities cable wire cementless stem
Amo Type Original Article
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 299
End Page 305
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
JaLCDOI 10.18926/AMO/56930
FullText URL 73_4_285.pdf
Author Otani, Yoshihiro| Ichikawa, Tomotsugu| Kurozumi, Kazuhiko| Date, Isao|
Abstract Gliomas are characterized as highly diffuse infiltrating tumors, and currently available treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are unfeasible or show limited efficacy against these tumors. Recent genetic and epigenetic analyses of glioma have revealed increasing evidence of the role of driver genetic alterations in glioma development and led to the identification of prognostic factors. Despite these findings, the survival rates of glioma patients remain low, and alternative treatments and novel targets are needed. Recent studies identified neural stem cells as the possible origin of gliomas, and some evidence has revealed shared functions and mechanisms between glioma cells and neurons, also supporting their similarity. The cytoskeleton plays important roles in the migration of normal cells as well as cancer cells. Recent reports have described a role for microtubules, a component of the cytoskeleton, in glioma invasion. Notably, several factors that regulate microtubule functions, such as microtubule-associated proteins, plus-end tracking proteins, or motor proteins, are upregulated in glioma tissues compared with normal tissue, and upregulation of these factors is associated with high invasiveness of glioma cells. In this review, we describe the mechanism of microtubules in glioma invasion and discuss the possibility of microtubule-targeted therapy to inhibit glioma invasion.
Keywords glioma cytoskeletons invasion microtubules
Amo Type Review
Published Date 2019-08
Publication Title Acta Medica Okayama
Volume volume73
Issue issue4
Publisher Okayama University Medical School
Start Page 285
End Page 297
ISSN 0386-300X
NCID AA00508441
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
Copyright Holders CopyrightⒸ 2019 by Okayama University Medical School
File Version publisher
Refereed True
Author Zhou, Xiaoyu| Tanaka, Ryoji| Yamanaka, Masahiro| Sakaguchi, Chie| Nakamura, Eizo|
Keywords highly siderophile elements desilicification isotope dilution method high resolution ICP-MS N-TIMS
Note This fulltext will be available in Apr 2020
Published Date 2019-03-20
Publication Title Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research
Publisher John Wiley
ISSN 16394488
NCID AA11984494
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
OAI-PMH Set 岡山大学
File Version author
DOI 10.1111/ggr.12280
Related Url isVersionOf https://doi.org/10.1111/ggr.12280
FullText URL NatCom_10_1_3022.pdf
Author Belay, Iyasu Getachew| Tanaka, Ryoji| Kitagawa, Hiroshi| Kobayashi, Katsura| Nakamura, Eizo|
Published Date 2019-07
Publication Title Nature Communications
Volume volume10
Issue issue1
Publisher Springer Nature Publishing AG
Start Page 3022
ISSN 20411723
Content Type Journal Article
language 英語
OAI-PMH Set 岡山大学
File Version publisher
PubMed ID 31289264
DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-10832-7
Related Url isVersionOf https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10832-7
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/56912
Title Alternative J. H. Clapham, An Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. 3, Machines and National Rivalries (1887-1914), with an Epilogue (1914-1929), Outline, Chap.8
FullText URL oer_051_1_059_083.pdf
Author Ichinose, Atsushi|
Publication Title Okayama Economic Review
Published Date 2019-07-16
Volume volume51
Issue issue1
Start Page 59
End Page 83
ISSN 2433-4146
language 日本語
Copyright Holders Copyright © 2019 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/56911
FullText URL oer_051_1_035_058.pdf
Author Matsuo, Nobushige|
Publication Title Okayama Economic Review
Published Date 2019-07-16
Volume volume51
Issue issue1
Start Page 35
End Page 58
ISSN 2433-4146
language 日本語
Copyright Holders Copyright © 2019 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/56910
Title Alternative The Japan-China Economic Relations in GVC from the Perspective of Trade in Value Added: Using Japan-China GVC input-output table
FullText URL oer_051_1_019_034.pdf
Author Teng, Jian| Feng, Junshi|
Publication Title Okayama Economic Review
Published Date 2019-07-16
Volume volume51
Issue issue1
Start Page 19
End Page 34
ISSN 2433-4146
language 日本語
Copyright Holders Copyright © 2019 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
JaLCDOI 10.18926/OER/56909
Title Alternative The Revolutionary Forces in Marx’s Theory and Marxism : Development? or Distortion?
FullText URL oer_051_1_001_018.pdf
Author Ota , Yoshiki|
Abstract 1. Diffusion of Marxism and inflation of the concept “proletariat”</br> The concept of “proletariat” is the central concept of Marxism. However, its content varies according to times and regions. For Marx and Engels, proletarias are workers who work in the capitalist large industries, they overthrow the rule of capitalists through the revolution and are the subjects of the construction of society in the future. Kautsky put workers in small factories and small farmers into the category of proletariat. Lenin overestimated capitalist development in Russia and included farmers without horses into proletariat. In Mao Zedong, agricultural workers, rumpen, handmade workers, peasants, clerks and peddlers are also allowed to participate in the revolution. The concept of proletariat is inflated. As the region moves away from the center of the world system, the scope of participants in the revolution has been expanded.</br> 2. “Proletariat” in Marx’s view on social development</br> In Marx, proletariat is given a privileged position as a revolutionary subject in the capitalist society. In the “formulation” of historical materialism, modern bourgeois society is given a privileged position in human history. Proletariat is privileged in dual sense. In this formulation, there is no social antagonism in the future society that Marx believes. This future society should be called a “community without law and state”. It is recognized that the development of capitalist production increases the number of workers and the ordinary electoral system increases possibilities of acquiring a working-class regime. Still, Capital insists that the revolution is inevitable. Marx and Engels never abandoned “revolutionism” throughout their lives.</br> 3. Marx’s revolutionary strategy and British working class</br> For Marx and Engels, England is a typical country of capitalistic development, giving models to other countries.However, the English working class in the mid-19th century was not “revolutionary”. The English labor movement during this period had been internalized under the guidance of the “labor aristocrat”. Working class was integrated as “nation”. While cooperating with the reformists politically, Marx was argueing revolutionism in scientific books. While cooperating with the reformists politically, Marx was advocating revolutionism in Capital. In modern bourgeois society, it is usual that labor classes are integrated into a system as “nation” and labor movement is to become reformistic, but Marx could not analyze this situation as a problem of upper structure of capitalism in general. In England Marx cooperated with the reformist labor movement, but could not abandon his revolutionism.</br> 4. Reform Movement and Revolutionism: German Revisionism Controversy and Russian Party Organization Controversy</br> At the German Social Democratic Party, there was coexistence of reformistic practice and ideology of revolutionism. Kautsky was a personal expression of this coexistence. He adhered to revolutionism, but acknowledged that socialist consciousness was brought into labor movement from the outside historically. Bernstein claimed that revolutionism is an obstacle to workers’ reform movement. In the controversy concerning the organization of the Russian Social Democratic Party, from the standpoint of revolutionalism, Lenin argued that “external injection” is necessary because the workers’ reform movement and the revolutionary socialist movement are not directly connected. The revolutionary forces are not necessarily the product of the capitalist big industry. Those who have abilities to resist the capitalist system, they can participate in the socialist revolution through the “external injection” of the revolutionary party. It can be said that the logic of “external injection” made it possible to disseminate Marxism to the semi-periphery and periphery.</br> 5. Conclusion</br> The Marxist revolution theory is understood as the theory of “revolution of developed countryies”. This is because it assumes the proletariat produced by the capitalist big industry as the revolutionary subject. In the case of Marx, its understanding is correct. However, the successful acquisition of the regime by the Marxist was in “backward countries”. It can be said that the key to solving this paradox was in the unreality of the concept of “proletariat” at the core of Marx’s revolutionism. Marx’s “proletariat” has no realities in the working class in center of modern capitalit world system (“developed capitalist countries”). On the other hand, various anti-systemic forces were formed as a revolutionary subject entity or “proletariat” by “external injection” of the revolutionary parties in semi-periphery and periphery (the “backward areas”). Rosa Luxemburg called as “clique management (Cliquenwirtschaft)” the regime that such forces could aquire. Under the “clique management” system, people remained in the object of governance and never became the subject.
Publication Title Okayama Economic Review
Published Date 2019-07-16
Volume volume51
Issue issue1
Start Page 1
End Page 18
ISSN 2433-4146
language 日本語
Copyright Holders Copyright © 2019 岡山大学経済学会
File Version publisher
Title Alternative Challenge to hand-rear of the common marmoset
FullText URL poalas_035_026_028.pdf
Author Hashimoto, Haruna|
Abstract In mid July 2018, the common marmoset bred in Okayama University gave birth to a triplet. It is very difficult to raise three infants. We selected the most heaviest one of her siblings, and we call her “POCKE”. We brought her up on the bottle for 80 days from the birth instead of her own mother. After 81 days, she finaly weand. Now she has become attached to human, but we hope that she gets back to their original community, as a “common” marmoset.
Publication Title Proceedings of Okayama Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Published Date 2019-06
Volume volume35
Start Page 26
End Page 28
language 日本語
File Version publisher
Title Alternative Biochemical Evaluation of Maternal Stress by Separating Infant Mice for Animal Experiments
FullText URL poalas_035_022_025.pdf
Author Yata, Norio|
Abstract Corticosterone, the glucocorticoid in rodents, is released from adrenal cortex in response to stress. Sometimes, for use in experiments, infants may be separated from their mother mouse. We studied the stress of mother mouse when she separates from infants. As a result, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood of the mother mouse tended to increase, by pulling her infants apart. In the case of using infant mice for animal experiments, it was suggested that it is necessary to consider the maternal stress.
Publication Title Proceedings of Okayama Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Published Date 2019-06
Volume volume35
Start Page 22
End Page 25
language 日本語
File Version publisher