Land improvement districts originally started as organizations after World War II: They are in charge of construction and operation of irrigation and drainage facilities, Development of agricultural land, reclamation from sea water, reclamation by filling, Recovery from disaster, exchange and consolidation of agricultural land and so on. As the Main construction projects were completed, the purpose of land improvement districts Has shifted from facilities construction to operation and maintenance of them. However, the recent social situation has brought great changes in circumstance to land improvement districts. In both urban and agricultural areas around local cities, urbanization has progressed so rapidly and widely that agricultural land has decreased through conversion into urban use. That causes pollution of irrigated water and difficulties in maintenance of land improvement facilities. In rural moutainous areas, on the other hand, excess Depletion in population has occurred, causing difficulties in proper maintenance of Agricultural land and land improvement facilities, which eventually increases the danger of natural disaster. Also, in other agricultural areas, the decline in agriculture of this country has degraded the quality of the production and living environments. This work was conducted to analyze the present situations of land improvement Districts in differing geographical and social conditions, and to discuss the problems Surrounding them. Through such discussion, we pointout some possible remedies which Might improve the situation.