To clarify the effects of a drive system lubricant additive upon rolling fatigue of rollers manufactured from carburized and hardened steel, three types of oil were used as lubricants: one mineral base oil and the other two mineral base oils to which an S-P additive package and ATF additive package were added, respectively. These specimens were tested for sliding/rolling fatigue and examined for failure on the surface, rolling fatigue strength, and other properties. Roller surface temperatures and inter-roller frictional coefficients were found scarcely affected by the type of oil used. Irrespective of the difference in oil type, failure on the surface was found to be entirely spalling attributable to cracks generated in the subsurface. The depth at which spalling cracks had taken place was found nearly coincident with the depth at which a ratio of reversing orthogonal shear stress to hardness had amplitude A(Tyz/Hv) maximized. These depths were larger as Hertz stress became more prominent. Nevertheless, they were found hardly affected by the type of oil. Although rolling fatigue strength did not show a significant difference dependent upon the type of oil, it may be said that fatigue life would be somewhat negatively affected by an extreme pressure coated film with a content of sulfur and phosphorus.