Serum α(1)-acid glycoprotein (α(1)-AG) and α(1)-antitrypsin (α(1)-AT) levels were measured in 30 controls, 57 patients with nonmalignant disease and 249 patients with malignant neoplasm of various sites and stages. An almost parallel increase of these glycoproteins was observed in patients with advanced cancer except hepatoma, but in cases with localized lesion these serum levels remained normal. In 85 patients with lung cancer and 49 with stomach cancer, considerable relationship was observed between the serum levels of these glycoproteins and degree of progression of cancerous lesions. Therefore, it seems that these glycoprotein levels are a relible index for staging malignant diseases. In Hodgkin's disease, however, there was no relationship between these serum levels and its clinical stage, but these glycoprotein levels in B cases of Hodgkin's disease were significantly elevated than in A cases. Evaluation of these glycoproteins would serve as a diagnostic means in patients with hepatomegaly and/or jaundice, since in patients with hepatoma α(1)-AG levels are decreased and α(1)-AT levels are elevated, in patients with metastatic liver cancer both of them are significantly elevated and in cirrhosis of the liver α(1)-AG levels are clearly decreased and α(1)-AT levels remain normal.