The author studied influences of hydroxyproline on erythropoiesis by means of rabbit bone-marrow tissue culture and also used this substance in the treatment of hypoplastic anemia; and obtained the following results. 1. In loading hydroxyproline directly to rabbit bone marrow tissue culture(fluid medium), no significant change can be recognized in the number of erythrocytes and reticulocytes. As for the change in hemoglobin (Hb) content with addition of this substance, Hb decreases in the control whereas it increases slightly when added in a high concentration. 2. In the tissue culture of the bone marrow (cover slip method) obtained from sternum of 5 cases of hypoplastic anemia loaded with hydroxyproline, the tissue growth has been accelerated in three cases. The two unaffected cases turned out to be of panmyelophthisis type. 3. Of 5 cases with hypoplastic anemia to three cases daily intravenous injection of 150-300 mg hydroxyproline was given. As the result all of them showed an increase the leucocyte count, but the erythrocyte count and Hb increased only in one case and it proved to be ineffective in other two cases.