|| Ever since protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was discovered to accumulate preferentially in cancer cells after 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment, photodynamic treatment or therapy (PDT) has been developed as an exciting new treatment option for cancer patients. However, the level of PpIX accumulation in oral cancer is fairly low and insufficient for PDT. Ferrochelatase (FECH) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) are known to regulate PpIX accumulation. In addition, serum enhances PpIX export by ABCG2. We investigated here whether and how inhibitors of FECH and ABCG2 and their combination could improve PpIX accumulation and PDT efficacy in an oral cancer cell line in serum-containing medium. ABCG2 inhibitor and the combination of ABCG2 and FECH inhibitors increased PpIX in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in an oral cancer cell line. Analysis of ABCG2 gene silencing also revealed the involvement of ABCG2 in the regulation of PpIX accumulation. Inhibitors of FECH and ABCG2, and their combination increased the efficiency of ALA-PDT even in the presence of FBS. ALA-PDT-induced cell death was accompanied by apoptotic events and lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that accumulation of PpIX is determined by the activities of ABCG2 and FECH and that treatment with a combination of their inhibitors improves the efficacy of PDT for oral cancer, especially in the presence of serum.
|| 5-aminolevulinic acid
|| Original Article
|| Acta Medica Okayama
|| Okayama University Medical School
|| CopyrightⒸ 2013 by Okayama University Medical School
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