The fact that the degradiation products evolving out of cell destruction in the local tissue are the factors playing an important role in a series of exsudative phenomena called as the inflammatory reaction is well-known as already reported by Menkin and others. It is difficult to distinguish the primary disturbance caused by inflammation-inducing substances from the secondary disturbance due to the products of tissue disintegration, but it may be possible to learn the manner of the inflammation-inducing cell destruction if the action of the inflammation inducing substances is so swift that the cells can be observed prior to the onset of the secondary reaction. From these viewpoints the author selected allergic inflammation as the subject for study, and first of all with the use of a phasecontrast microscope pursued the changes caused by the action of antigen on those free cells not being in inflammatory situation. When antigen is made to act on the peritoneal monocytes of the rabbits sensitized with bovine serum the cells quickly retract their pseudopodia; cells become swollen; the nuclear membrane becomes distinct and the nuclear and cytoplasmic structures become indistinct. In addition, when supra vitally-stained cells are observed, they change the shapes rapidly, and the dye, losing its granular form, spread very quickly and extensively in the cytoplasma. These phenomena seem to suggest the acceleration of permeability due to the destruction of the cell membrane with resultant flow of external fluid into the cell, a rapid change in molecular arrangement within the cell, and the demolition of the cell itself due to the activation of various catabolic enzymes, and the emigration of disintegrated substances to the outside of the cell.