Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010Effects of the Cultivation Method on the Characteristics or Gene Expression Profiles of Aspergillus oryzae Using mCD or DPY Media7383ENHiroyukiImanakaSoukichiTanakaBinFengKoreyoshiImamuraKazuhiroNakanishi10.18926/19962We used modified Czapek-Dox (mCD) or dextrin-peptone-yeast extract (DPY) media to cultivate a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2706 by three different cultivation methods, i.e., shaking-flask culture (SFC), agar-plate culture (APC), and membrane-surface liquid culture (MSLC), to identify the differences in cultivation behaviors and gene transcriptional profiles. The fungi cultivated by APC or MSLC secreted a greater number of different proteins/enzymes in larger quantities compared with fungi cultivated by SFC, particularly when DPY medium was used. In particular, the amounts of protease secreted by fungi cultivated via MSLC or APC were much greater compared with SFC. When mCD medium was used, -amylase activity was barely detectable in all cultures while the activity was detected in MSLC and APC in a quantity that was several times higher than that in SFC using DPY medium. SDS-PAGE analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequences confirmed 6 proteins in the culture supernatants when DPY medium was used. Among these proteins oryzin (an alkaline protease) and -amylase were detected at much higher levels in APC and MSLC compared with SFC, which was consistent with
the measured activity of the secreted enzymes. However, when mCD medium was used, only oryzin was detected in significant amounts in MSLC and APC. Microarray analyses of the fungi cultivated by SFC, APC or MSLC using either mCD or DPY media indicated that the gene transcriptional profile of the MSLC sample was similar to that of the APC sample but different from that of the SFC sample. When mCD medium was used, most of the genes that were up-regulated 10-folds or greater in the MSLC sample relative to the SFC sample were unknown or predicted proteins. Transcription of the oryzin gene was only slightly up-regulated in the MSLC sample while transcription of the -amylase gene was slightly down-regulated. On the other hand, when DPY medium was used, many known genes including the oryzin gene were up-regulated in the MSLC sample versus the SFC sample.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712511990A Method of Cubic Object Feature Extraction113ENTsutomuWadaToshiroNoritsugu10.18926/15480How to reduce and simplify the calculation for image recognition is a very attractive and important issue in order to realize the real time control of a robot based on the image recognition results. This paper describes a method of extracting 2 - dimensional geometrical features of cubic objects based on the normal vector distributions from the visual information obtained with the laser range finder to reduce the calculation of the image recognition. In this research a laser beam is scanned in the horizontal plane to which the cubic objects stand vertically and the laser spot is detected with a TV camera every sampling time. These spots make an intermittent locus which includes some special lines corresponding to the cubic objects. To extract the features of the cubic objects, we utilize the normal vectors formed on the locus. If some normal vectors distribute in the same direction and the origin of the normal vectors are very close to their neighbor's, these normal vectors can be classified into the same class, -the straight line class. Because the normal vectors on the neighbor surfaces of the cubic objects are vertical to each other, we use this property to determine the pair of straight lines which belong to the cubic objects. Making the histogram based on the normal vectors with the same direction, we obtain the peaks which are supported by the points on the cubic object surfaces. Then, the points can be extracted from the set of points on the whole locus inversely according to the relations with the peaks and the features of the cubic object can be extracted by applying method of least square to these extracted points. The experiments proved the availability of the proposed processing algorithm.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713011995Principle of Biodynamic Analysis Using Human Limb Electrical Impedance1924ENTakaoNakamuraYoshitakeYamamoto10.18926/15369This paper describes a new measurement method and principle of detection of biodynamics using bioelectrical impedance method based on four-electrode technique with sinusoidal constant current. This method uses a human body itself as a part of the sensor. First, we show a bioelectrical impedance measuring device and the change of bioelectrical resistance is measured in human movement. Second, we proposes a principle of detection of biodynamics based on correspondence of magnitude, form and stability of movement to impedance waveform. Hence we can use this method for the judgement of sports skill using the impedance characteristics.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002A Study on the Planning and Scheduling of Production System Considering Demand Changes1542ENRyujiOhtaniMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/47023In this paper, we studied a planning and scheduling of production system considering demand changes. In the proposed system, planning part determines lot-size and amount of jobs in production. On the other hand, scheduling part determines the production sequence of jobs. In order to treat with the demand changes, both planning and scheduling should work well simultaneously. In the proposed system, preset and real time production control system is newly constructed from the view point of adaptive control. In the system, production planning is modified when the difference between production amount and demand becomes large. Moreover, production schedule is regenerated when the determined schedule is deviated from the prospected one. The scheduling system is characterized as the autonomous decentralized optimization system where each job works as agent and agent searches its appropriate starting time of processing. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by numerical examples.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713612001Modeling uncertainty for unknown modal parameters in large flexible structures2939ENJunImaiKiyoshiWada10.18926/46998A procedure for control-oriented modeling is proposed for large flexible structures with unknown modal parameters. Techniques on quantification of errors in modal truncated nominal models are developed for the case where a finite number of upper and lower bounds of the unknown modal parameters are given. A feasible set of systems matching the conditions is introduced, and then error bounds covering the feasible set are established in the frequency domain. The bounds are easily checked using linear programming for any user-specified frequency. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is illustrated by numerical study on an ideal flexible beam example.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713722003Gain Tuning Model of Human Expert for Looper Height Control in Hot Strip Rolling2944ENShuyaImajoMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/46978In hot strip rolling mills, the looper control system is automated. However, the looper's behavior tends to be unstable in threading. Therefore, human expert always intervenes and stabilizes the looper's behavior by tuning PID gains and interposing manipulation variable of looper control system. In this paper, we propose a method based on the recurrent neural network to express PID gains tuning action by human. Furthermore, we propose two methods to update the model by learning. To check the effectiveness of the proposed learning methods, numerical simulation applied to the looper height control is carried out.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713722003Sensitivity Analysis and its Application to the Control of Inner Furnace Temperature Distribution1327ENTaizoShibutaMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/46977Nowadays, various kind of reactor furnaces are widely used for the production in industry. The raw materials charged into the furnace generate reaction heat produced by blowing gas. Generally speaking, the reaction heat generated in the furnace is remarkably high. Therefore the occurrence of an inappropriate temperature distribution in the furnace may make damege or serious accident of the furnace. This is the motivation of furnace control. The author is considering the application of studied results to the furnace control of Blast Furnace in steel industry. To the propose, the approximated and simplified Macro Model of the Blast Furnace is constructed which has the function of representation of qualitative characteristics of the furnace in dynamical sense. The furnace temperature, distribution greatly effects both on the producting and the product quality of the furnace. Needless to say, stable furnace operation is indispensable for the economical prosperity of the industry. In this paper, macro simulation of the furnace is developed to support the analysis and design of the furnace control. Using the simulator, the stability and the control characteristics for inner furnace temperature distribtion are analised quantitatively.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713712002Agent Based Routing Control for Multi Mobile Robots in Transportation110ENKenSotobayashiMasamiKonishiTatsushiNishiJunImai10.18926/46967Auto Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are widely used in a semi-conductor fabricating factory and contribute to the stable production of a high quality semi-conductor products. In the near future, further expansion of the transportation system is expected accompanied with the rapid growth of semi-conductor industries. In such situation, the necessity of performing quick planning of transportation route and transportation control will be elevated. In this paper, practicable planning of the transportation route and transportation control are studied based on the decentralized agent method. Especially, the geometrical sizes of AGVs are considered in the determination of transportation routes and control strategy avoiding the occurrence of mutual collisions or deadlock of AGVs.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004Feature Extraction and Classification of Operational Data for Diagnosis of Hot Strip Mill Looper Control1527ENTakashiTorigoeMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/46948In these days, mechanical systems are becoming more complex and highly automated. So, there exist wide variety of demands for reliable diagnostic technology. A reliable data analysis and quantitative diagnosis method of mechanical system is necessary for the purpose. In this paper a quantitative diagnosis method for looper height control system has been developed based on neural network technologies. The wavelet transformation is used for pre-processing to analyze characteristics of looper height control system. And, self organizing map neural network is used for the purpose of classification based on the pre-processed data. After that, the classified results are used for quantitative diagnosis in hierarchical neural network.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004Control Method for Temperature Distribution in Reactor Furnace by Sequential Quadratic Programming Method514ENKazuhitoIshimaruMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/46947Temperature distribution in the reactor furnace is mainly operated by gas blowing from multiple tuyeres and material charge distribution. The objective of our research is obtain the optimal profile of gas flow to control temperature distribution in the reactor furnace in the shortest possible time. We formulated the optimization problem to reduce deviation of temperature distribution from its desired one in the reactor furnace. Based on the formulation, gas blow conditions are optimized by a sequential quadratic programming method to realize the desired temperature distribution. The validity of the method was checked through numerical experiments.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115452011Optimal Digital Control Systems Design for Handling Machines using dsPIC114ENTatsuroAkiyoshiJunImaiMasamiKonishi10.18926/44495This paper presents a method of the controller design for the handling machine by using dsPIC(Digital Signal Processor + Peripheral Interface Controller). Recently, many manufacturing robots are operated in manufacturing facilities, with the aim of labor, cost saving,
and improvement of the productivity. Such robots need to have positioning performance of high precision and simultaneously to save cost. In this paper, a digital optimal servo controller is designed, and it is implemented into our barebones controller which involves dsPIC. We have designed and manufactured the controller which is added suitable peripherals to improve the consistency between the mechanical machine operating in continuous time and controller in discrete time. The significance of this research is that digital implementation of the embedded system which has performance-limitation has ensured a comparable result, against the one with PC which has broad utility. When it is used as a controller, it is possible to restrain product prices greatly equivalent PC precision. We demonstrate potential that good control can be achieved even with low cost. Our research has lead to the viability
of lower cost and higher performance system for the production process at factories.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Human Support Agent for Design and Diagnosis using Classifier System7592ENKeitaOheMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/17844As is well known, an advanced knowledge and know-how are needed in the design and the diagnosis work. Further, human experts can cope with the recent trend of customers
needs. Therefore, the design and the diagnosis work have been privately performed in the past, and its information cannot be shared. In addition, the number of experts is decreasing. It is a very important problem to maintain and to extend experts technologies having been built up. For the purpose, methods and systems for technical inheritance of the advanced techniques of the skilled engineers are needed to train the unskilled operators and also can assist skilled operators. In this research, attention is focused on the design of analog filter circuit. To attain the target, the circuit structural classifier system to support design work is developed. Furthermore, simulation technology for hot strip rolling mills based on distributed agents is presented aimed to develop tools for the diagnosis of hot strip rolling mills operation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Surface Defect Inspection of a Cutting Tool by Image Processing with Neural Networks5560ENShinichiroInoueMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/17841In this research, an image processing method and a system for inspection support of a rod figured cutting tool are developed. As is well known, the visual inspection of a cutting tool by image processing is not easy, because cutting blade have a helical blade structure. To cope with the problem, an experimental facility with rotation and longitudinal tool shift functions to enable acquisition of blade surface pictures along a cutting rod is developed. The type of the defect treated in this paper is the spot of coating on blade surface. To judge the quality of the processed image of blade surface, neural network with autonomous learning is used. The processed image of cutting tool is divided into 64 ~ 64 blocks used for the
input to the neural networks. Before input, each block data is preprocessed applying a edge detection filter and a transformation by the discrete fourier transform (DFT). Using these technologies, the experimental inspection system is built and tested to check the capabilities of the inspection algorithms. The diagnostic performance of the surface defect of a cutting tool was confirmed. There remained a problem to mis judge the normal tools as the defect.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Position Control of 2-Link SCARA Robot by using InternalModel Control4954ENShinyaAkamatsuMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/17839In this paper, the controlled target is the SCARA robot with two links, and the object is fine control of the arm head position of the robot. To attain the object, Internal Model Control (IMC) is introduced. A nonlinear equations are for robot dynamics formulated by solving Lagrange equation, and is linearized to design control system by IMC. The controller of IMC is designed or synthesisted as the inverse system of the linearized model, and IMC filter model is selected. Also, reference filter is introduced to make the improvement of performance. The result of control performance by IMC is compared with that of PID numerically, accuracy and incoherency are confirmed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Positioning Control of One Link Arm with ParametricUncertainty using Quantitative Feedback Theory3948ENTakayukiKuwashimaJunImaiMasamiKonishi10.18926/17837This paper presents method of the controller design for one link arm with parametric uncertainty. Recently, many manufacturing robots are operated in manufacturing facilities, with the aim of labor and cost saving or improvement of the productivity. Such robots need to have positioning performance of high precision. In condition that there is an uncertainty in plant dynamics, desired control performance may not be attained because the
controller is designed according to the mathematical model of a plant. So it is important that the designed control system have a robust control performance. In this paper, the robust controller is designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) for one link arm with parametric uncertainty. Simulation experiments are run for control system designed by using QFT and conventional method. The results are compared with each other and it is found that the control system designed by QFT shows a robust performance and can suppress the unevenness of output against parametric uncertainty.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Tracking Control of Combination Vehicles with PreviewFeedforward Compensation3238ENShujiMabuchiMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/17835A tractor-trailer vehicle in the factory might move on the route determined beforehand. However, automation of a tractor-trailer vehicle is difficult so that it is necessary to consider the nonlinearity of a vehicle and a trailer. In this research, the effective tracking control
method of a tractor-trailer vehicle is proposed. The control method using time-state control form for a preview control is presented, and be applied a tractor-trailer vehicle with nonholonomic characteristics. Results of numerical experiments are presented to check effectiveness
of the proposed control method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Diagnostic method for induction motor using simplified motor simulator4751ENYukihiroDoumaeMasamiKonishiJunImaiHidekiAsadaAkiraKitamura10.18926/15269In this paper, an identification method of motor parameters for the diagnosis of rotor bar defects in the squirrel cage induction motor is proposed. It is difficult to distinguish the degree of deterioration by a conventional diagnostic method such as Fourier analysis. To overcome the difficulty, a motor simulator is used to identify the degree of deterioration of rotors in the squirrel cage induction motor. Using this method, the deterioration of rotor bars in the motor can be estimated quantitatively.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming Method toTemperature Distribution Control in Reactor Furnace2839ENKazuhitoIshimaruMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/14148In reactor furnace, due to high temperature and high pressure, data can be measured only near the furnace wall. In this paper, the way to estimate temperature distribution in a reactor furnace using measured data near the furnace walls and to control temperature distribution to the desired temperature distribution was studied. In the estimation, SQP method is employed using measured data near the furnace walls. As the result, the whole temperature distribution in a furnace could be obtained from such limited data. Furthermore, to control the temperature distribution in a reactor furnace, gas flow from multiple tuyeres and supplying material for controlling temperature distribution in a reactor furnace were determined by the SQP method. It was shown that temperature distribution in a furnace was regulated to achieve various desired distribution. Thus, it was verified that complicated temperature distribution in a reactor furnace could be controlled by combining furnace simulation and SQP method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Application of Neural Network to Fault Diagnosis ofElectro-Mechanical System2127ENTakashiTorigoeMasamiKonishiJunImaiTatsushiNishi10.18926/14146In this paper, neuro based intelligent diagnosis methods for electro-mechanical control
system are proposed. A self organizing map neural network (SOM) is used to classify
measured data of the target system as a qualitative diagnostic method. Besides of the above
procedure, it is expected to attain more efficient maintenance by a quantitative estimation
of failure. For the purpose, new method is proposed using a hierarchical neural network
(HNN). In the method, classified results by SOM are processed for the quantitative diagnosis.
Hierarchical neural network can identify inner structure of the relations between failure
causes and its results that enables a quantitative diagnosis.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006Transfer Routing of Ore Yard by Decentralized Agent Method2330ENJunjiKikuchiMasamiKonishiTatsushiNishiJunImai10.18926/14099In steel works, iron ores are stored in ore yard and sent to various plants of down stream accoding to transfer requests. To attain stable operation, it is neccesary to keep a certain allowable stock level in ore tanks of all plants. To this purpose, ore transfer routing method has been developed based on decentralized agent method. In case of disaster such as a big earthquake or a big fire, damages in the facilities of industrial complex may be unavoidable. In this paper, decentralized optimization method is tested to cope with such emergencies. Decentralized agents corresponding to kind of ore make their own transfer
route plan exchanging information with others. As the application of the proposed method, transfer scheduling in ore yard in steel works are made in case of destruction of transfer facilities.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006RNN Based Auto-tuning of PID Control Gains in Hot StripLooper Controller1622ENYoshihiroAbeMasamiKonishiTatsushiNishiJunImai10.18926/14098In this study, auto tuning of PID control gains in hot strip looper controller is made based on RNN model. Neuro emulator is employed to model the characteristics of looper
dynamics. Combining neuro emulator and RNN model, auto tuning system of PID control gains is constructed. As the inputs to RNN, plural evaluation functions which reflect individual preference of human experts. Further, Self learning mechamism is embeded to RNN model which enables adaptation to the change in rolling chracteristics. Through numerical experiments, the effect of the proposed method is ascertained.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006Statistical Estimation Model for Product Quality of Petroleum915ENTakashiNukinaMasamiKonishiTatsushiNishiJunImai10.18926/14097Controls of the temperature, pressure and flowing quantity are important for the stable operation of the product quality in the distillation tower. The usual measuring way of product quality estimation is made by the off-line analysis. In this paper, online estimation method of product quality is studied for improving the product quality. The estimation method based on stochastic analysis was developed for online estimation. In this paper, the
data of temperature, pressure and flow volum in the distillation tower are treated.
As the estimation models, RNN (Recurrent Neural Net Work) and PLS (Partial Least Square Regression Method) were adopted. The actual plant data were used in the analysis.
Both PLS and RNN models could compensate each other to improve the accuracy in estimation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007Decomposition of Time Petri Nets for Solving Optimal FiringSequence Problem4451ENRyotaMaenoMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14083Petri net model is a frequently-used versatile tool which can represent a widely discrete event system. However, when the scale of the system becomes large, the calculation time for solving optimal problem (optimal firing sequence problem) is markedly increased. In this paper, we propose an approximation method that achieves the efficiency improvement of the solution by decomposing the Petri net for solving the optimal firing sequence problem.
A timed Petri Net is decomposed into several subnets in which the optimal firing sequence for each subnet is solved by Dijkstrafs algorithm in polynomial computational complexity.
The effectivity of the proposed method is verified by numerical experiments for the flowshop schedule problem.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007Simultaneous Optimization of Production and TransportationPlanning by using Logic Cut Algorithm3143ENRyoheiHamanaMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14082Various kind of productions are made in semiconductor factories, where it employs the production system with
multiprocess and multiple Automated Guided Vehicles(AGVs) for transportation. It is difficult to optimize
planning of production and transportation simultaneously because of the complicated flow of semifinished products.
This paper describes the formulations of production scheduling and transportation routing, and algorithm
for simultaneous optimization of plannings by using logic cuts. The entire problem is decomposed to the master
problem and the sub problem. If it derives the infeasible solutions, new constraints are added to the master
problem to eliminate the solution area including infeasible solutions. The results of about optimality and computation
time by using CPLEX solver are shown compared with conventional decomposition method to check
up effectivity of proposed method in small size problem, and about optimality and computaion time for large
scale problem.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007Method for Production Planning and Inventory Control in OilRenery2030ENTakujiImamuraMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14081In this paper, we propose a simultaneous optimization method for inventory control and production planning problem for a chemical batch plant. The plant consists of
blending process, intermediate storage tanks and filling process. In the proposed method, the original problem is decomposed into production planning sub-problem and inventory control sub-problem. Then the decision variables are optimized by alternately solving each sub-problem. The solution of the proposed method is compared with that of centralized optimization method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is investigated from numerical
computational results.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Cooperation of Production, Product Handling and TransferScheduling for Semiconductor Fabrication91103ENHamanaRyoheiMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14065Various kind of productions are made in semiconductor fabrications, where it employs the production system with multiprocesses and multiple Automated Guided Vehicles(AGVs)
for transportation. It is difficult to optimize planning of production and transportation simultaneously
because of the complicated flow of semifinished products. This paper describes the formulations of production scheduling, transportation routing and sequence planning of
material handling system, and algorithm for simultaneous optimization of plannings by using solution space reduction and simulated annealing method. In this paper, all production system is decomposed to the production scheduling problem, transportation routing problem
by AGVs and sequence planning of material handling system with managing stockers and buffers. Production scheduling problem and transportation routing problem are solved
by the optimization algorithm using the decomposition routing problem. Sequence planning of material handling robot problem is solved by the algorithm using simulated annealing method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Temperature Distribution Control of Reactor Furnace by StateSpace Method using FEM Modeling7990ENMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14064The operations of a reactor furnace such as a blast furnace still depend on the experiences and intuitions of skilled operators due to the complexity of internal furnace phenomena and high temperature. There is a great demand for stable operations under the circumstances of a decrease in the number of skilled operators and difficulty in technology inheritance.
This paper aims to construct mathematical description for control of a reactor furnace.
Further, the linear-quadratic-gaussian control system for a reactor furnace is proposed, which estimates inner furnace temperature distribution using measured data near furnace wall.
Temperature distribution of a furnace is controlled based on the estimated inner temperature distribution changing of boundary conditions of a furnace. The practicability of the proposed control method was checked through numerical experiments.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Optimization of Inventories for Multiple Companies by Fuzzy Control Method7178ENKoichiKawaseMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14063In this research, Fuzzy control theory is applied to the inventory control of the supply chain between multiple companies. The proposed control method deals with the amount
of inventories expressing supply chain between multiple companies. Referring past demand and tardiness, inventory amounts of raw materials are determined by Fuzzy inference. The method that an appropriate inventory control becomes possible optimizing fuzzy control gain by using SA method for Fuzzy control. The variation of uncertain demand is given to the proposal method. Furthermore, the method of forecasting demand and the effectiveness of fuzzy control method are confirmed by numerical experiments. As the results, the proposal method suppressed increase in an unnecessary cost when demand varies.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Transfer Planning of Molten Metals in Steel Worksby Decentralized Agent6070ENJunjiKikuchiMasamiKonishiJunImai10.18926/14062In steel works, molten metals discharged from blast furnace are put into a pan for transportation called torpedo and transported to steel making factory by a locomotive. In molten metals transportation, it becomes issues to prevent temperature drop of molten metals for stable production of down stream plants to shorten transportation time. Therefore it is necessary to make an appropriate plan for molten metals transfer considering the production
and the transportation simultaneously. In this paper, molten metals transfer planning method is proposed including production scheduling. That is, torpedo schedule, transfer request assignment and route plan of locomotives are optimized according to each objective.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712921995Correction of Apparent Viscoelasticity of Skin Surface3947ENHisaoOkaShun-yaSakamoto10.18926/15417The body structures under the skin surface, such as bones and tendon, have an influence on the stiffness evaluation observed from the surface. In this case, the observed stiffness should be called an apparent stiffness. To obtain the biomechanical properties of skin itself, the influence of body structure should be removed. This study deals with the correction method of apparent viscoelasticity which calculated from apparent biomechanical impedance. This method is applied to the measured result of the forearm and the right chest to confirm its effectiveness.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713612001Improvement of Biocompatibility of Silicone Elastomer by Surface Modification117121ENYukiShirosakiKanjiTsuruSatoshiHayakawaAkiyoshiOsakaSeisukeTakashima10.18926/47005-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (-MPS) was grafted to silicone due to emulsion polymerization to induce Si-OH groups, in order to provide silicone with bioactivity spontaneous deposition of apatite in body fluid and to improve cytocompatibility. Apatite deposited on the grafted silicone within 7 days of soaking in 1.5 times as concentrated as the Kokubo solution. Osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured on the specimens up to 7 days. After 5 days of culture, the number of MC3T3-E1 cells on the grafted specimen was much greater than that on the original specimen. These results indicated that the biocompatibility of silicone elastomer was improved by the grafting -MPS.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071341-22000Cytocompatibility of Silicone Elastomer Treated with Hydrogenperoxide Containing Tantalum Chloride3943ENSatoshiHayakawaYukiShirosakiTakeshiYabutaKanjiTsuruAkiyoshiOsaka10.18926/15363Silicone elastomer was chemically treated at 60 for 7 days with 30 wt% H(2)O(2) solutions with or without TaCl(5) and soaked for various periods in a simulated body
fluid(Kokubo solution) up to 21 days. Apatite formation ability of the surface of the silicone elastomer specimens was investigated with thin-film X-ray diffraction and FT-IR
reflection spectroscopy. These silicone specimens did not deposit apatite or calcium phosphates, irrespective of chemical treatment. Osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-El) derived from mouse were cultured on the specimens at 36.5 under 5%C0(2) and 95% humidity. Similar degree of proliferation of cells was observed at 7 days among three specimens, while the no treatment specimen after incubation for 5 days showed a lower degree of proliferation than the silicone treated with 30 wt% H(2)O(2) solutions with or without TaCl(5). Alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells proliferated on the no treatment specimen was lower than those of the silicone treated with 30 wt% H(2)O(2) solutions with or without
TaCl(5). These results indicate that the cytotoxicity of the silicone could be improved by the chemical treatment with 30 wt% H(2)O(2) solutions with or without TaCl(5).No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115462012Optimal Computation of 3-D Similarity: Gauss-Newton vs.Gauss-Helmert2133ENKenichiKanataniHirotakaNiitsuma10.18926/48127Because 3-D data are acquired using 3-D sensing such as stereo vision and laser range finders, they have inhomogeneous and anisotropic noise. This paper studies optimal computation of the similarity (rotation, translation, and scale change) of such 3-D data. We first point out that the Gauss-Newton and the Gauss-Helmert methods, regarded as different techniques, have similar structures. We then combine them to define what we call the modified Gauss-Helmert method and do stereo vision simulation to show that it is superior to either of the two in convergence performance. Finally, we show an application to real GPS geodetic data and point out that the widely used homogeneous and isotropic noise model is insufficient and that GPS geodetic data are prone to numerical problems.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115462012Optimal Computation of 3-D Similarity from Space Data with Inhomogeneous Noise Distributions19ENKenichiKanataniHirotakaNiitsuma10.18926/48125We optimally estimate the similarity (rotation, translation, and scale change) between two sets of 3-D data in the presence of inhomogeneous and anisotropic noise. Adopting the Lie algebra representation of the 3-D rotational change, we derive the Levenberg-Marquardt procedure for simultaneously optimizing the rotation, the translation, and the scale change. We test the performance of our method using simulated stereo data and real GPS geodetic sensing data. We conclude that the conventional method assuming homogeneous and isotropic noise is insufficient and that our simultaneous optimization scheme can produce an accurate solution.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115452011Optimal Computation of 3-D Rotation under Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Noise3645ENKenichiKanataniHirotakaNiitsuma10.18926/44498We present a new method for optimally computing the 3-D rotation from two sets of 3-D data.
Unlike 2-D data, the noise in 3-D data is inherently inhomogeneous and anisotropic, reflecting the characteristics of the 3-D sensing used. To cope with this, Ohta and Kanatani introduced a technique called grenormalizationh. Following them, we represent a 3-D rotation in terms of a quaternion and compute an exact maximum likelihood solution using the FNS of Chojnacki et
al. As an example, we consider 3-D data obtained by stereo vision and optimally compute the 3-D rotation by analyzing the noise characteristics of stereo reconstruction. We show that the widely used method is not suitable for 3-D data. We confirm that the renormalization of Ohta and
Kanatani indeed computes almost an optimal solution and that, although the difference is small, the proposed method can compute an even better solution.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115452011Hyper Least Squares and Its Applications1526ENKenichiKanataniPrasannaRangrajanYasuyukiSugayaHirotakaNiitsuma10.18926/44496We present a new least squares (LS) estimator, called gHyperLSh, specifically designed for parameter estimation in computer vision applications. It minimizes the algebraic distance under a special scale normalization, which is derived by rigorous error analysis in such a way that statistical bias is removed up to second order noise terms. Numerical experiments suggest that our HyperLS is far superior to the standard LS and comparable in accuracy to maximum likelihood (ML), which is known to produce highly accurate results in image applications but may fail to converge if poorly initialized. Our HyperLS is a perfect candidate for ML initialization. In addition, we discuss how
image-based inference problems have different characteristics form conventional statistical applications, with a view to serving as a bridge between mathematicians and computer engineers.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010High Accuracy Homography Computation without Iterations5059ENKenichiKanatani10.18926/19959We present highly accurate least-squares (LS) alternatives to the theoretically optimal maximum likelihood (ML) estimator for homographies between two images. Unlike ML, our estimators are non-iterative and yield solutions even in the presence of large noise. By rigorous error analysis, we derive a ghyperaccurateh estimator which is unbiased up to second order noise terms. Then, we introduce a computational simplification, which we call gTaubin approximationh, without incurring a loss in accuracy. We experimentally demonstrate that our estimators have accuracy surpassing the traditional LS estimator and comparable to the ML estimator.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010Optimization without Search: Constraint Satisfaction by Orthogonal Projection with Applications to Multiview Triangulation3241ENKenichiKanatani10.18926/19957We present an alternative approach to what we call the gstandard optimizationh, which minimizes a cost function by searching a parameter space. Instead, the input is gorthogonally projectedh in the joint input space onto the manifold defined by the gconsistency constrainth, which demands that any minimal subset of observations produce the same result. This approach avoids many difficulties encountered in the standard optimization. As typical examples, we apply it to line
fitting and multiview triangulation. The latter produces a new algorithm far more efficient than existing methods. We also discuss optimality of our approach.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002Regulatory Role for Complement Receptors (CD21/CD35) in the Recombination Activating Gene Expression in Mouse Peripheral B Cells5160ENMasakiHikidaMasakiMagariYasunoriNakayamaNaokiKanayamaHitoshiOhmori10.18926/47025A population of peripheral B cells have been shown to express recombination activating gene products, RAG-1 and RAG-2, which are considered to be involved in revising the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) in the periphery. BCR engagement has been reported to turn off RAG expression in peripheral B cells, whereas the same treatment has an opposite effect in immature B cells in the bone marrow. In contrast to receptor editing that is involved in the removal of autoreactivity in immature B cells, it has been shown that secondary V(D)J rearrangement in peripheral B cells, termed receptor revision, contributes to affinity maturation of antibodies. Here, we show that RAG-2 expression in murine splenic B cells was abrogated by the coligation of BCR with complement receptors (CD21/CD35) much more efficiently than by the engagement of BCR alone. On the other hand, the same coligation augmented proliferation of anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. Consistent with these observations, RAG-2 expression was lower in the draining lymph nodes of the quasi-monoclonal mice when they were immunized with a high-affinity antigen than with a low-affinity one. These findings suggest a crucial role for CD21/CD35 in directing the conservation or the revision of
BCRs in peripheral B cells.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004Generation of IgM and IgG1 monoclonal antibodies with identical variable regions: comparison of avidity9196ENNaokiKanayamaKimiYamakoshiMasaakiKiyomiMasakiMagariHitoshiOhmori10.18926/46955Generally, IgM antibodies (Abs) produced in a primary immune response show lower affinity for an inducing antigen (Ag) compared with the corresponding IgG Abs that are major switched isotypes formed in the secondary response. An IgM molecule is a pentamer with 10 Ag-binding sites that will contribute to an increase of avidity for an Ag. To estimate the contribution of the pentameric structure to the avidity of an IgM Ab, we generated IgM and IgG1 monoclonal Abs (mAbs) with identical V regions that are specific for 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl (NP) by in vitro class switching of B cells followed by the cell fusion with a mouse myeloma cell line. Compared with an anti-NP IgG1 mAb, the corresponding IgM mAb showed much higher avidity for NP-conjugated
bovine serum albumin, which was drastically reduced after being dissociated into monomers.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713722003Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Continuously Measured with Polarized Mie Scattering Lidar8997ENKengoIokibeYoshitakaToyotaOsamiWadaRyujiKoga10.18926/46983Aerosol extinction coefficients of clouds and dust were continuously measured in the year of 2002 with a polarized Mie-scattering lidar controlled by an automatic and remotely operating system utilizing internet services. Measured cloud extinctions were greater than 1.0 km(-1) below the altitude 6 km, 0.17 - 1.0 km(-1) between 6 and 10 km, and 0.091 - 0.3 km(-1) beyond 10km. Extinction of dust were 0.10 and 0.20 km(-1) for Asian dust and 0.057 km(-1) for urban dust.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071341-22000Depolarization properties of Asian dust (KOSA) measured hyLIDAR in Okayama in the spring of 19982737ENHeWeiRyujiKogaKengoIokibeOsamiWadaYoshitakaToyota10.18926/15360In spring of 1998, Asian dust was observed with a Mie LIDAR in Okayama University, which can measure depolarization ratio. Three events of intense Asian dust were occurred in the period and medially detailed structure of atmosphere was found after examining records. Asian dust was distinguished from water droplets and the possibility to study three dimensional dynamic structure of atmosphere were demonstrated.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005A Scheme to Classify Clouds with the Depolarization Ratio andBackscattering Coeffcient Measured by Lidar93101ENKengoIokibeYoshitakaToyotaOsamiWadaRyujiKoga10.18926/14158The optical properties of clouds were measured with a polarization Mie lidar during April, 2004 and investigated to categorize the particles detected by the lidar. The cloud
layers were categorized into five types according to the depolarization ratios, as follows: (I) constant and small (less than 5%); increasing with height (II) nearly from 0% and (III) from about 50%; (IV) large and varying with the backscattering coefficient; and (V) sharply decreasing. This categorization of clouds enabled us to separate aerosols from clouds in a lidar signal. Comparison of the backscattering coefficients between clouds of types (I) and
(II) suggested that the depolarization ratio induced by multiple scattering in dense clouds does not depend on the particle density. Estimation of the particle phase for the five cloud categories was also examined.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115472013Lazy Random Walk Efficient for Pollardfs Rho Metho Attacking on G3 over Barreto-Naehrig Curve (Corrected)2532ENKentaNekadoYusukeTakaiYasuyukiNogami10.18926/49322Pairing–based cryptosystems are well implemented with Ate–type pairing over Barreto–Naehrig (BN)
curve. Then, for instance, their securities depend on the difficulty of Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP)
on the so–denoted G3 over BN curve. This paper, in order to faster solve the DLP, first proposes to
utilize Gauss period Normal Basis (GNB) for Pollardfs rho method, and then considers to accelerate the
solving by an adoption of lazy random walk, namely tag tracing technique proposed by Cheon et al.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115472013Representation of Torsion Points on Pairing Curves of Embedding Degree 11924ENYasuyukiNogamiTaichiSumo10.18926/49321Recent efficient pairings such as Ate pairing use two efficient rational point subgroups such that
(P) = P and (Q) = [p]Q, where , p, P, and Q are the Frobenius map for rational point, the
characteristic of definition field, and torsion points for pairing, respectively. This relation accelerates not
only pairing but also pairing–related operations such as scalar multiplications. It holds in the case that
the embedding degree k divides r | 1, where r is the order of torsion rational points. Thus, such a case
has been well studied. Alternatively, this paper focuses on the case that the degree divides r + 1 but
does not divide r | 1. Then, this paper shows a multiplicative representation for r–torsion points based
on the fact that the characteristic polynomial f() becomes irreducible over Fr for which also plays a
role of variable.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713722003A Fast Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem with Prime Order Defined over F(p8)7387ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/46982Public key cryptosystem has many uses, such as to sign digitally, to realize electronic commerce. Especially, RSA public key cryptosystem has been the most widely used, but its key for ensuring sufficient security reaches about 2000 bits long. On the other hand, elliptic curve cryptosystem(ECC) has the same security level with about 7-fold smaller length key. Accordingly, ECC has been received much attention and implemented on various processors even with scarce computation resources. In this paper, we deal with an elliptic curve which is defined over extension field F(p2c) and has a prime order, where p is the characteristic and c is a non negative integer. In order to realize a fast software implementation of ECC adopting such an elliptic curve, a fast implementation method of definition field F(p2c) especially F(p8) is proposed by using a technique called successive extension. First, five fast implementation methods of base field F(p2) are introduced. In each base field implementation, calculation costs of F(p2)-arithmetic operations are evaluated by counting the numbers of F(p)-arithmetic operations. Next, a successive extension method which adopts a polynomial basis and a binomial as the modular polynomial is proposed with comparing to a conventional method. Finally, we choose two prime numbers as the characteristic, and consider several implementations for definition field F(p8) by using five base fields and two successive extension methods. Then, one of these implementations is especially selected and implemented on Toshiba 32-bit micro controller TMP94C251(20MHz) by using C language. By evaluating calculation times with comparing to previous works, we conclude that proposed method can achieve a fast implementation of ECC with a prime order.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115452011Squaring Algorithm Efficient for Cubic Extension Field Derived with Pseudo Gauss Period Normal Basis5459ENKentaNekadoYusukeTakaiYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/44500Recently, pairing–based cryptographies have attracted much attention. For fast pairing calculation, not only pairing algorithms but also arithmetic operations in extension field should be efficient. Especially for final exponentiation included in pairing calculation, squaring is more important than multiplication. This paper considers squaring algorithms efficient for cubic extension field which is often used for pairing implementaions.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115452011Ordinary Pairing Friendly Curve of Embedding Degree 1 Whose Order Has Two Large Prime Factors4653ENYasuyukiNogamiErikaYanagiTetsuyaIzutaYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/44499Recently, composite order pairing–based cryptographies have received much attention. The composite order needs to be as large as the RSA modulus. Thus, they require a certain pairing–friendly elliptic curve that has such a large composite order. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm for generating an ordinary pairing–friendly elliptic curve of the embedding degree 1 whose order has two large prime factors as the RSA modulus. In addition, the generated pairing–friendly curve has an efficient structure for the Gallant–Lambert–Vanstone (GLV) method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010Ecient Squaring Algorithm for Xate Pairing with Freeman Curve6972ENKentaNekadoHidehiroKatoYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/19961Recently, pairing–based cryptographies have attracted much attention. For fast pairing calculation, not only pairing algorithms but also arithmetic operations in extension field should be efficient. Especially for final exponentiation included in pairing calculation, squaring is more important than multiplication. This paper proposes an efficient squaring algorithm in extension field for Freeman curve.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010Ordinary Pairing Friendly Curve of Embedding Degree 3 Whose Order Has Two Large Prime Factors6068ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/19960This paper proposes a method for generating a certain composite order ordinary pairing–friendly elliptic curve of embedding degree 3. In detail, the order has two large prime factors such as the modulus of RSA cryptography. The method is based on the property that the order of the target pairing–friendly curve is given by a polynomial as r(X) of degree 2 with respect to the integer variable X. When the bit size of the prime factors is about 500 bits, the proposed method averagely takes about 15 minutes on Core 2 Quad (2.66Hz) for generating one.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Cost Evaluation of The Improvement of Twisted Ate Pairing That Uses Integer Variable X of Small Hamming Weight113116ENYumiSakemihidehiroKatoYasuyukiNogamiYoshikawaMorikawa10.18926/17853Barreto–Naehrig (BN) curve has been introduced as an efficient pairing-friendly elliptic curve over prime field F(p) whose embedding degree is 12. The characteristic and Frobenius trace are given as polynomials of integer variable X. The authors proposed an improvement of Miller's algorithm of twisted Ate pairing with BN curve by applying X of small hamming weight in ITC–CSCC2008; however, its cost evaluation has not been explicitly shown. This paper shows the detail of the cost evaluation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Extension Field for Xate Pairing with Freeman Curve108112ENKentaNekadoHidehiroKatoYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/17851Recently, pairing-based cryptographies such as ID-based cryptography and group signature have been studied. For fast pairing calculation, not only pairing algorithms but also arithmetic operations in extension field must be efficiently carried out. The authors show efficient arithmetic operations of extension field for Xate pairing especially with Freeman curve.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009A High-Speed Square Root Algorithm for Extension fields -Especially for Fast Extension Fields-99107ENHidehiroKatoYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/17849A square root (SQRT) algorithm in extension field F(p(m))(m = r(0)r(1)r(n|1)2(d), r(i) : odd prime, d : positive integer) is proposed in this paper. First, a conventional SQRT algorithm, the Tonelli-Shanks algorithm, is modified to compute the inverse SQRT in F(p(2d)), where most of the computations are performed in the corresponding subfields F(p(2i)) for 0 ≤ i ≤ d-1. Then the Frobenius mappings with addition chain are adopted for the proposed SQRT algorithm, in which a lot of computations in a given extension field F(p(m)) are also reduced to those in a proper subfield by the norm computations. Those reductions of the field degree increase efficiency in the SQRT implementation. The Tonelli-Shanks algorithm and the proposed algorithm in F(p(6)) and F(p(10)) were implemented on a Core2 (2.66 GHz) using the C++ programming language. The computer simulations showed that, on average, the proposed algorithm accelerated the SQRT computation by 6 times in F(p(6)), and by 10 times in F(p(10)), compared to the Tonelli-Shanks algorithm.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Determining Minimal Polynomial of Proper Element by Using Higher Degree Traces197205ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/15380Modern communication engineerings, such as elliptic curve cryptographies, often requires algebra on finite extension field defined by modulus arithmetic with an irreducible polynomial. This paper provides a new method to detemine the minimal (irreducible) polynomial of a given proper element in finite extension field. In the conventional determination method, as we have to solve the simultaneous equations, the computation is very involved. In this paper, the well known "trace" is extended to higher degree traces. Using the new traces, we yield the coefficient formula of the desired minimal polynomial. The new method becomes very simple without solving the simultaneous equations, and about twice faster than the conventional method in computation speed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005A High-Speed Square Root Computation in Finite Fields with Application to Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem8292ENFengWangYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14157In this paper, we focus on developing a high-speed square root (SQRT) algorithm required for an elliptic curve cryptosystem. Examining Smart algorithm, the previously well-known SQRT algorithm, we can see that there is a lot of computation overlap in Smart algorithm and the quadratic residue (QR) test, which must be implemented prior to a SQRT computation.
It makes Smart algorithm inefficient. The essence of our proposition is thus to present a new QR test and an efficient SQRT algorithm to avoid all the overlapping computations. The authors devised a SQRT algorithm for which most of the data required have been computed in the proposed QR test. Not only there is no computation overlap in the proposed algorithm and the proposed QR test, but also in the proposed algorithm
over GF(p(2)) (4 | p | 1) some computations can be executed in GF(p); whereas in Smart algorithm over GF(p(2)) all the computations must be executed in GF(p(2)). These yield many reductions in the computational time and complexity. We implemented the two QR tests and the two SQRT algorithms over GF(pm) (m=1, 2) in C++ language with NTL (Number
Theory Library) on Pentium4 (2.6GHz), where the size of p is around 160 bits. The computer simulations showed that the proposed QR test and the proposed algorithm over GF(p(m)) were about 2 times faster than the conventional QR test and Smart algorithm over GF(p(m)).No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005A Method for Generating Prime Order Elliptic Curves over F(q(2c))7181ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14156This paper proposes an algorithm for generating prime order elliptic curves over extension field whose extension degree is a power of 2. The proposed algorithm is based on the fact that the order of the twisted elliptic curve is able to be a prime number when the extension degree for the twist operation is a power of 2. When the definition field is F(2(40)|87)(4) , the proposed algorithm can generate a prime order elliptic curve within 5 seconds on PentiumIII (800MHz) with C language.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006The Orders of Elliptic Curves y(2) = x(3) + b, b F(* q)8394ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14126This paper particularly deals with elliptic curves in the form of E(x, y) = y(2) | x(3) |b = 0, b F(* q) , where 3 divides q|1. In this paper, we refer to the well-known twist technique as x-twist and propose y-twist. By combining x-twist and y-twist, we can consider six elliptic curves and this paper proposes a method to obtain the orders of these six curves by counting only one order among the six curves.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007An Algorithm for Generating Irreducible Cubic Trinomials over Prime Field1119ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14080This paper proposes an algorithm for generating irreducible cubic trinomials in the form x(3) + ax + b, b F(p), where a is a certain fixed non-zero element in the
prime field F(p). The proposed algorithm needs a certain irreducible cubic trinomial over F(p) to be previously given as a generator; however, the proposed algorithm can generate irreducible cubic polynomials one after another by changing a certain parameter in F(p). In this paper, we compare the calculation cost and the average computation time for generating an irreducible cubic polynomial, especially trinomial, among Hiramoto et al. irreducibility testing algorithm, Berlekamp-Massey minimal polynomial determining algorithm, and the proposed algorithm. From
the experimental results, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is the fastest among the three algorithms for generating irreducible cubic trinomials.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007The Number of the Irreducible Cubic Polynomials in the Form of x(3) + ax + b with a Certain Fixed Element a110ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14079In this paper, we first show the number of x's such that x(2) +u, u F(*)(p) , becomes a quadratic residue in F(p), and then this number is proven to be equal to (p+1)/2 if |u is a quadratic residue in Fp, which is a necessary fact for the following. With respect to the irreducible cubic polynomials over Fp in the form of x(3)+ax+b, we give a classification based on the trace of an element in F(p3) and based on whether or not the coefficient of x, i.e. the parameter a, is a quadratic residue in Fp. According
to this classification, we can know the minimal set of the irreducible cubic polynomials, from which all the irreducible cubic polynomials can be generated by using the following two variable transformations: x=x + i, x=j|1x, i, j Fp, j 0. Based on the classification and that necessary fact, we show the number of the irreducible cubic polynomials in the form of x(3)+ax+b, b F(p), where a is a certain fixed element in F(p).No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008A Method for Checking the Parity of (#Jc - 1)=2 of Genus 2 and 3 Hyperelliptic Curves110114ENYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14071This paper shows a method for checking the parity of (#Jc | 1)/2 without calculating the order #Jc, where #Jc is the order of genus 2 or 3 hyperelliptic curve.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Fast Exponentiation in Extension Field with Frobenius Mappings3643ENHidehiroKatoKentaNekadoYasuyukiNogamiYoshitakaMorikawa10.18926/14057This paper proposes an exponentiation method with Frobenius mappings. Our method is closely related to so-called interleaving exponentiation. Different from the interleaving exponentiation methods, our method can carry out several exponentiations using same base at the same time. The efficiency to use Frobenius mappings for an exponentiation in extension field is well introduced by Avanzi and Mihailescu. This exponentiation method is based on so-called simultaneous exponentiation and uses many Frobenius mappings. Their method more decreased the number of multiplications; however, the number of Frobenius mappings inversely increased. Compared to their method , the number of multiplications needed for the proposed method becomes about 20% larger; however, that of Frobenius mappings becomes small enough.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002Experimental Verification of Common-Mode Excitation Model for PCB Having Partially Narrow Return Path8389ENTetsushiWatanabeOsamiWadaRyujiKogaYoshitakaToyotaTakuyaMiyashita10.18926/47029Suppression of common-mode current is important to achieve electromagnetic compatibility of high-speed and high-density electronic circuits. The authors have focused on the common mode current flowing on a printed circuit board (PCB) to explain the excitation mechanism. A narrow ground pattern in microstrip structure excites common-mode current. In the previous paper, the authors explained the mechanism of common mode generation by means of "current division factor" for simple PCBs. The estimated radiation from a simple PCB agreed well with measured one. In this paper, the authors extend the theory to be applied to generalize ground structure. The validity of the theory is confirmed by comparing the measured radiation and the estimated value using the common-mode model for a test PCB. The estimated radiation agrees well with the measured one within 3 dB up to 900 MHz.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002Application of Transfer Matrix Method with Signal Flow-Chart to Analyze Optical Multi-Path Ring-Resonator7382ENIip SyarifHidayatYoshitakaToyotaOsamuTorigoeOsamiWadaRyujiKoga10.18926/47028A multi-path ring-resonator (MPRR) was proposed to extend FSR of ring resonator. However, it is complicated to analyze the MPRR by using well-known analysis techniques such as scattering matrix or other numerical methods. This paper describes procedure for deriving transfer matrix by means of signal flow-chart to analyze the MPRR. We do not need complicated calculation for steady state analysis because transfer matrix elements are formulated clearly. As a result, The calcultaion time in this method can be reduced 1/3 to 1/20 times compared with using scattering matirx method. Furthermore, a transmittance characteristics of the MPRR at FSR extension-factor of 10 will also be shown. This suggests that analysis of other types of the MPRR by using this method can be performed simply and take a shorter time.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713712002Pulse Timing Control of Multiple Signal Interconnections for Reduction of EMI5160ENAkihiroNambaYoshitakaToyotaOsamiWadaRyujiKoga10.18926/46972This paper presents pulse timing control method to reduce electromagnetic emission from multiple signal interconnections. Pulse timing control gives intentional skew between signals. Higher order harmonics are canceled because of the difference of the phase between the signals. Using this property, pulse timing control can reduce the EMI in wide frequency range. In this paper, we show that radiated electromagnetic field from multiple signal lines reduces its intensity to the same level of the field from one line by using pulse timing control. The result of measurement
shows that EMI from four differential transmission lines can be reduced more than 9 dB in the 200 MHz to 800 MHz frequency range.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007Heat and Mass Transfer Analysis of Fluidized Bed Grain Drying5262ENHideoInabaAkihikoHoribeNaotoHaruki10.18926/14084The effects of heat and mass transfer parameters on the efficiency of fluidized bed drying have been studied to optimize the input and output conditions. The analysis was carried out using two different materials, wheat and corn. Energy and exergy models based on the first and second
law of thermodynamic are developed. Furthermore, some unified non-dimensional experimental correlations for predicting the efficiency of fluidized bed drying process have been proposed. The effects of hydrodynamics and thermodynamics conditions such as the inlet air temperature, the initial moisture content and well known Fourier and Reynolds numbers on energy efficiency and exergy
efficiency were analyzed using the developed model. A good agreement was achieved between the model predictions, non-dimensional correlations and the available experimental results.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713612001Structure and Cohesive Energy of Large Spherical Coulomb Clusters4149ENHirooTotsujiTokunariKishimotoChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsuruta10.18926/46999The ground state of spherical clusters of charged particles of one species confined by the three-dimensional parabolic potential is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with the system size from N = 5000 to N = 1.2 ~ 10(5) . The cohesive energy per particle is compared between the shell-structured clusters and spherical finite bcc lattices with relaxed surfaces, the former and the latter being the ground states for small systems and for the large enough systems, respectively. It is shown that, when N > N(c)(N(c) > N), finite bcc lattices with relaxed surfaces (the shell structures) have stronger cohesion than the shell structures (finite bcc lattices with relaxed surfaces) and the critical value of the transition N(c) is estimated to be 10(4) < N(c) < 1.4 ~ 10(4) . The nucleation of the bcc lattice in the shell-structured cluster of 2 ~ 10(4) ions is observed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713712002Estimation of the screening length and the electric charge on particles in single-layered dusty plasma crystals1114ENChiekoTotsujiMuhammad S.LimantKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/46968A theoretical approach which has been successful in reproducing results of molecular-dynamics
simulations on dusty plasmas is applied to estimate the screening length and the electric charge of two-dimensional dust crystals of melamine particles in the discharge chamber experiment. It has been found that the screening length is of the same order of magnitude as the inter-particle distance and the electric charge decreases on increasing number density of dust particles.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004Dynamical Properties of Two-Dimensional Yukawa Liquids: A Molecular Dynamics Study3337ENM. SanusiLimanChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/46950The dynamic structure factor and the spectrum of the momentum-density fluctuations of 2D Yukawa liquids are analyzed in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling and screenlng parameters. The dispersion relations of the longitudinal and transverse collective excitations are obtained and compared with the random phase approximation (RPA) and harmonic approximation for triangular lattice.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004Structure of Dusty Plasma under Microgravity2932ENHirooTotsujiChiekoTotsujiTakafumiOgawaKenjiTsuruta10.18926/46949The structure of dust particles in dusty plasmas under microgravity has been analyzed by molecular dynamics simulation. The charge neutrality condition satisfied by the system composed of dust particles and ambient plasma is properly taken into account. It is shown that dust particles form shell structures at low temperatures and the number of shells are obtained as a phase diagram in the plane of two parameters characterizing the system: the number of particles and the strength of screening. It is also shown that these structures are almost independent of the strength of screening.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Waves in a Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystal: Negative Refraction712ENKenjiTsuruta10.18926/19954The lens effect of acoustic waves in a two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal is studied by numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.
We calculate the phonon band structure of 2D phononic crystals, consisting of metal cylinders placed periodically in water. Lens effect is observed by the negative refraction of acoustic waves, which results in refocusing of the waves at the point outside the crystal. To increase the focal intensity, we introduce a 2D phononic crystal shield with a different composition of material, which returns the incident waves back to the lens via the perfect reflection. Also, the dependence on filling fraction of metal in the crystal is studied.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115442010FDTD Analysis on Optical Connement Structurewith Electromagnetic Metamaterial16ENKenjiTsuruta10.18926/19953In this paper, we investigate a light-confinement phenomenon in the structure which has triangular latice composed of Double NeGative Metamaterial (DNGM). In
geometrical optics consideration, this structure is expected to confine lights completely by sequential refractions in the structure. We demonstrate it by using the two dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. We introduce Drude-Lorentz model for dielectric and magnetic dispersion of the material at optical frequencies. We analyze quantitatively the effects of energy loss in the DNGM on the light-confinement
efficiency.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999O(N) Tight-Binding Algorithm for Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations7177ENKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsujiChiekoTotsuji10.18926/19674A parallel tight-binding molecular dynamics with an order-N [O(N))] algorithm is implemented to perform large-scale simulation of nanostructured materials. The algorithm is based on the Fermi-operator expansion of an electronic energy and force, and we present its basic formalisms. Accuracy necessary for molecular-dynamics simulations can be obtained by a proper truncation in the expansion. Parallel efficiency on a parallel PC cluster shows nearly ideal scaling behavior with respect to the number of processors. Applicability of the method to a silicon-carbide system is examined.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Multicomponent Plasmas in Penning-Malmberg Traps6169ENHirooTotsujiKenjiTsurutaChiekoTotsuji10.18926/19673The behavior of multicomponent plasmas in the Penning-Malmberg traps is discussed with the parameters corresponding to experiments with antiprotons and cryogenic electrons. The relaxation times for the energy transfer antiprotons to electrons and between parallel and perpendicular components of electrons are estimated. It is shown that, depending on the values of parameters, both the former and the latter can be the bottleneck in the cooling process.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Density Functional Molecular Dynamics of Hydrogen Plasma5159ENHirooTotsujiKenjiTsurutaChiekoTotsuji10.18926/19671Density functional molecular dynamics method is applied to hydrogen plasma in the domain of liquid metallic hydrogen. Tentative results for the proton-proton pair distribution function and the electron-proton pair distribution function are obtained. It is shown that with the increase of the parameter (s), we have increasingly strong screening of proton charge by electrons and the decrease of electron density in the domain between protons.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Information Transfer and Entanglement Creation by Spin Chains: Effects of Noise and Asymmetry2226ENHirooTotsujiChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsuruta10.18926/17831For the transfer of quantum information and the creation of entangled states, the application of tuned spin chains, systems of spins with the nearest-neighbor coupling tuned so as to give high efficiency, has been proposed and some examples of high performance have been given by several authors. In this article, the effect of deviations from tuned values and the effect of resultant asymmetry are investigated through numerical simulations and theoretical analyses. It is shown that there exists a system where the transfer efficiency is comparable with exactly tuned ones and, at the same time, robust to noises in the coupling constants. It is also shown that the effect of asymmetry on the efficiency of entanglement creation is of the second order when the asymmetry is small.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009FDTD Simulations of Acoustic Waves in Two-DimensionalPhononic Crystals using Parallel Computer1621ENKenjiTsurutaChiekoTotsujiHirooTotsuji10.18926/17829The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been applied to the calculation of the phonon band structure of two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals, consisting of metal cylinders placed periodically in liquid. By comparing several combinations of materials for metal cylinder and liquid, we analyze the dependence of the band structures on sound speed and density of liquid media. Moreover, the negative refraction of the acoustic waves is observed at the interfaces between phononic crystal slab and the liquid. We find that an acousticglens effecthwith the slab appears due to the negative refractions. The relationship between the focal intensity in the lens effect and the band structure is discussed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Dispersion Models and Electromagnetic FDTD Analyses ofNanostructured Metamaterials using Parallel Computer815ENChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/17826Metamaterial which has negative permittivity and permeability is investigated via computer simulations. Effects of the nanostructure on dielectric and magnetic properties of the material are taken into account by introducing the Drude-Lorentz model in the materials dispersion. We include multi-band process in the dielectric response in order to reproduce accurately experimental values of bulk Au thin film. Size effect on the dispersion is examined by comparing the model with that of a noble metal particle. Based on the dispersion model constructed, we analyze the electromagnetic response of nanostructured metamaterials to evanescent waves at microwave and optical frequencies via finite-difference time-domain simulatioins on parallel computer. A re- focusing and an amplification of the evanescent waves propagating through a metamaterial, consisting of metal
slab/vacuum stacking, is demonstrated for the frequencies of 30GHz and 744THz.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001A Group Signature Scheme with Easy Membership Canceling207212ENToruNakanishi10.18926/15382In the group signature scheme with a trusted party, a verifier can determine whether or not a signature is made by a member of the group, but cannot identify the member who signed the signature. In case of dispute later on, the signer can be identified by the trusted party. However, for efficient group signature schemes proposed so far, removing a member from the group can be not efficiently performed. In this paper, a group signature scheme with an easy membership canceling is proposed. By sending a request to use a resource together with the group signature on it to the manager of the resource, the manager can control anonymous accesses to the resource. In such an application, the proposed group signature scheme is suitable for canceling of the access privilege.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Molecular Dynamics of Yukawa System using the Fast Multipole Method7795ENChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/15361In order to perform the large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of the Yukawa system, a mathematical expression for molecular dynamics using the fast multipole method is described. The model simulations are also performed to test
the performance of our implementation of the FMM.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Nonorthogonal Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Si(1-x)Ge(x) Alloys6375ENChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/15358We present a theoretical study of Si(1-x)Ge(x) alloys based on tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) calculations. First, we introduce a new set of nonorthogonal tight-binding parameters for silicon and germanium based on the previous work by Menon and Subbaswamy [Phys. Rev. B 55, 9231 (1997); J. Phys: Condens. Matter 10, 10991 (1998)]. We then apply the method to structural analyses of Si(1-x)Ge(x) alloys. The equilibrium volume and atomic structure for a given x are obtained by the TBMD method. We also calculate the bulk modulus B, elastic constants C(11), C(12) and C(44) as a function of x. The results show that the moduli vary monotonically, but nonlinearly, between the values of Si crystal and Ge crystal. The validity of the results is also discussed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Laser Welding of Slices of Magnetic Circuit2128ENVolodymyrS.kovalenkoYoshiyukiUnoYasuhiroOkamotoM.AnyakinA.LutayKhaled Al.Shubul10.18926/15348In electric power industry, there is a problem of achieving stable joint in different components using high productive and efficient technologies. One type of these components is packages of slices for magnetic circuit of electric motors, transformers etc., which need reliable means for their fixing. Laser welding is proposed to solve this problem as an alternative for existing technologies. The development of the laser welding process is presented based on process simulation, study of heat history and comparison with experimental results. Laser beam additional scanning technique is proposed to improve the quality and efficiency of the joining operation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulation of CoulombClusters: A Finite-Temperature Analysis5255ENKatsuyaKanamoriChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14152Thermal behavior of Coulomb clusters in a three dimensional confining potential is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations for system sizes of 1,000 to 20,288 ions. The specific heat of the system of shell-structured 20,000 ions is peaked almost at the same temperature as the system of
bcc-structured 20,288 ions with much sharper structure for the latter. The diffusion coefficient and the peak to valley ratio of the two-dimensional pair distribution function on the outermost shell are obtained both as a function of temperature. The rotational movement of each shell in the system
of 104 ions is observed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Electron Dynamics in Semiconducting Nanowires: A Real-Space,Polynomial-Expansion Approach4651ENKeisukeKadonoChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14150We present a real-space, polynomial-expansion approach to electron dynamics in nanostructured semiconductors. The Chebyshev expansion method is employed for efficient calculation of timeevolution of single-electron wave function. Details of the formulation are described. The method is applied to the electron transport in nanostructured semiconductors such as Si nanowires. The
mean-square displacement and diffusivity of electron in Si chains are obtained as functions of length of the chains. The results show clearly ballistic behavior of electron in the pure Si chain.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006Distribution of Electrons in Quantum Dots Analyzed by Classical Mapping and Molecular Dynamics4043ENMiyakeTakashiChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14121The electron system of arbitrary degeneracy can be mapped onto a classical system where electrons of the same spin are assigned an additional interaction and the effect of degeneracy is taken into account through an imaginative temperature. We apply this method to electrons in quantum dots modeled as two-dimensional electron liquid confined in a finite domain by a harmonic potential. We analyze distribution functions by molecular dynamics instead of solving integral equations which are not so useful in the case without translational invariance.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006Stochastic-Dierence-Equation Method for Long Time-scaleMolecular Dynamics Simulations3639ENAtsushiUchidaChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14120We present a Stochastic-Difference-Equation (SDE) approach to long time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which are required for nanosecond-scale phenomena. In this method, the MD trajectory in a fixed time period is obtained as a stationary solution of an action functional
based on an error accumulation of the equation of motion along the path, thus reducing the problem to a boundary-value problem, instead of an initial-value problem in the ordinary MD method. We apply the method to formation processes of Cu thin film via nanocluster deposition onto a substrate.
The applicability of the SDE algorithm to the problem and the effects of the choice of SDE parameters on the optimization processes of configuration pathway are examined.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006Melting of Spherical Yukawa Clusters Analyzed by Monte CarloSimulation3135ENTakafumiOgawaChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14119We analyze the melting of spherical Yukawa clusters by Monte Carlo simulations. Spherical clusters are expected to be found in dusty plasmas in an isotropic environment such as microgravity and serve as a model for classical clusters. We obtain the specific heat through fluctuations of the potential energy and identify its peak as the transition temperature. Melting temperatures are compared with those of bulk Yukawa systems and it is confirmed that the melting temperature increases and approaches the bulk value with the increase of the system size.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Spin Polarization of Two-Dimensional Electron System in a Finite Domain5659ENChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14061We analyze the ground state of the two-dimensional quantum system of electrons confined in a parabolic potential with the system size around 100. We map the system onto a classical system on the basis of the classical-map hypernetted-chain (CHNC) method which has been proven to work in the integral-equation-based analyses of uniform unbounded systems and then apply classical numerical simulations. We find that the confined system undergoes the transition to the spin polarized state with the decrease of the average density and the corresponding critical value is as low as rs ∼ 0.3 in terms of the usual rs parameter estimated for the average density. As the ground state
for given value of the rs parameter, our data give the critical value for the transition around 20 which
is consistent with the known possibility. The advantage of our method is a direct applicability to geometrically complex systems which are difficult to analyze by integral equations. The application to the structure like quantum dots reported here is the first example of such applications.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Numerical Simulations of Two-dimensional Electron Fluid : An Application of Classical-map Hypernetted-chain Method4852ENChiekoTotsujiKenjiTsurutaHirooTotsuji10.18926/14059Based on the mapping introduced by the classical-map hypernetted-chain (CHNC) method, classical
numerical simulations, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics, have been applied to the twodimensional
electron fluid and the results are compared with those of quantum Monte Carlo simulations
hitherto reported. It is shown that polarization properties of the ground state obtained by the diffusion Monte Carlo method are reproduced within the accuracy of quantum simulations by both of two mapping functions for the quantum temperature which have been proposed within the
CHNC method. These results may serve as the basis of numerical simulations based on the CHNC method which are applicable to finite non-periodic systems like quantum dots and systems at finite temperatures.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Vibrational Properties of Si Crystal with Vacancy : A Tight-Binding Study4447ENKenjiTsurutaChiekoTotsujiHirooTotsuji10.18926/14058To analyze vibrational properties of Si crystal with a single charge-neutral vacancy, we perform large-scale simulations based on tight-binding molecular-dynamics method.
Vibrational modes and frequencies are obtained by diagonalizing dynamical matrix within a harmonic approximation. Results indicate that there exist vibrational modes spatially localized around the vacancy and large frequency shifts associated with the localized
modes contribute significantly to reduction of the vibrational free energy.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115432009Crystal rotation behavior with fatigue crack propagation in copper films17ENKenichiShimizuTashiyukiToriiKokiIshida10.18926/17822Using a fatigue testing method by which fatigue cracks can be initiated and propagated in a film adhered to cover an elliptical through-hole in a base plate subjected to push-pull cyclic loads, annealed copper films with the thickness of 100m and those reduced the thickness from the 100m to 50m by an electro-polishing were fatigued under a constant stress amplitude with a stress ratio of zero. The crystal rotation behavior with the fatigue crack propagation was investigated by measuring the crystal orientation around the fatigue crack initiated from the notch root before and after fatigue testing, using EBSD (Electron Back-scatter Diffraction) method. Then, the change of crystal orientation with fatigue testing was evaluated quantitatively from the misorientation between the crystal orientation matrix on the same point obtained before and after fatigue testing. As a result, the angle of the crystal rotation obtained from the region showing the high fatigue crack propagation rate was larger than that obtained from the region showing the low fatigue crack propagation rate for the film with the thickness of 100m, while the fatigue crack propagated faster in the film with the thickness of 50m than that with the thickness of 100m regardless of the small crystal rotation angles with the fatigue testing for the film with the thickness of 50m.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior Bent from Precrack under Mixed-Mode Conditions - Noting the Crack-Surface Contact due to a Compressive Residual Stress along a Precrack -18ENYouLiMaKenichiShimizuTashiyukiTorii10.18926/14096A testing for bent fatigue crack propagation under mixed-mode conditions was carried out using fatigue and annealed slant precracks with different slant angles, ,defined as the angle between loading and precrack directions in a rectangular plate. As a result, bent fatigue crack from the fatigue precrack with =45deg. propagated under mixed-mode conditions with mode II stress intensity factor (K(II))(est) evaluated from the discontinuous displacement measured along the crack. On the other hand, bent fatigue crack from the fatigue precrack with =60deg. and from the annealed precracks with both slant angles of =60deg. and =45deg. propagated under the mode I behavior. This was because the compressive residual stress near the fatigue precrack caused contact to each other between the upper and the lower surfaces of the precrack with the smaller slant angle . Furthermore, the fatigue crack propagation rates indicated almost the same relationship for all the data, using the mixed-mode effective stress intensity factor (K(M))(est), calculated from the discontinuous displacement measured along the bent fatigue crack.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714212008Fatigue Crack Propagation Evaluated by Electric Resistance and Ultrasonics in Copper Film Bonded to Base Metal with Resin104109ENMADonghuiTashiyukiToriiKenichiShimizuAkiraMatsuba10.18926/14069As model specimens of surface film-bonded materials, pure copper films with a thickness of 100m were bonded to the surface of steel base with epoxy resin, where the tensile residual stress was measured by an X-ray on the surface copper film. The distribution of initial electric resistance was measured on both copper film and base specimen by a direct current potential drop technique. As a result, there was a good agreement between the measured and theoretical values. From the fatigue testing results, it was shown that the measured electric resistance increased with the fatigue crack length on the copper film, which was almost equal to the theoretical value calculated for a central slit in a plate with finite width. This was probably because the fatigue crack was opened due to the tensile residual stress on the film even under unloading condition. In addition, the internal crack length during fatigue was examined by ultrasonic testing for the film-bonded specimen. As a result, there was a difference in the fatigue crack length between the surface copper film and the inner base.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714112007Structure, Morphology and Color Tone Properties of theNeodymium Substituted Hematite9398ENMakotoNakanishiTatsuoFujiiJunTakada10.18926/14088Co-precipitation method has been employed to fabricate neodymium substituted hematite with different compositions from the aqueous solution of their corresponding
metal salts. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction studies revealed the coexistence of Fe(2)O(3) and Nd(2)O(3) phases up to 1050 and formation of solid solution phase among
them at 1100 and above temperatures, which was evidenced by shifting of the XRD peaks. Unit cell parameters and the cell volumes of the samples were found to increase by adding Nd(3+) ions in the reaction process. FESEM studies showed the suppression of particle growth due to the presence of Nd(3+) ions. Spectroscopic measurement evidenced that neodymium substituted hematite exhibited brighter yellowish red color tone than that of pure -Fe(2)O(3).No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713111996Synthesis and Characterization of Poly[(benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d']bisthiazole-2,6-diyl)-1,4-phenylene]1117ENTetsuyaUchidaKaoruShimamura10.18926/19624Poly[(benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d']bissthiazole-2,6-diyl)-1,4-phenylene](cis-PBZT)with a relatively high molecular weight was prepared by a new synthesis route. Properties of the synthesized polymer, such as thermostability, liquid crystallinity etc. were investigated and compared with those of trans-PBZT. cis-PBZT was crystallized from dilute solution and the electron microscopy showed that the precipitate was a rod-like crystal similar to that of trans form. In spite of rigid nature of the back bone, cis-PBZT showed poor crystallinity.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713111996Solution-Grown Crystals of Poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole)510ENKaoruShimamuraTetsuyaUchida10.18926/19622Rigid polymer poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) was crystallized from dilute solution. Electron microscopy showed that upon quenching, flat fibrils with several nm thick were produced. Subsequent heat treatment in solvent changed the fibril into "shish-kebab". On the other hand, by isothermal crystallization, an aggregate of parallel rod-like crystals was obtained. The molecular chains were accommodated normal to the rod. Based on the observation of crystal morphology, the isothermal crystallization mechanism was proposed. Because of regidity of polymer chains and wide distribution of the molecular length, the chain ends were inevitably included within the crystals resulting in crystal defects such as axial shift, lattice curvature and edge dislocation which were directly observed by lattice imaging.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Scanning Probe Microscopy of Poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) Lamellar Crystal3540ENKaoruShimamuraTetsuyaUchidaTomohiroInoue10.18926/15352Rigid polymer, poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole), formed lamellar crystals where the molecular chains were oriented perpendicular to the lamellae. It was supposed that, because of wide distribution in the chain length, the lamellar surface bristled with the chain cilia among which many voids were included. Crystallographically, this region
afforded us a transitional structure from full to deficient packings of chains. The structure was analyzed using the scanning probe microscope. In the course the method for imaging one molecular chain end was developed. From the images it was concluded that an isolated long cilius did not move so violently at room temperature.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Synthesis of Poly(ethylene-block-vinylalcohol)for Use as Amphiphilic Film Surface at High Temperature2934ENKaoruShimamuraTetsuyaUchida10.18926/15350Poly (ethylene-block-vinyl alcohol), which consisted of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks, was prepared by using polyethylene single crystals as starting material. Polyethylene single crystals reacted with fuming nitric acid resulting in long methylene chains with functional groups such as COOH and NO(2) at the ends (the chain length were almost same as the lamellar thickness of polyethylene single crystal). The functionalized methylene chains were allowed to react with 4-aminostyrene to give corresponding amides, i.e., methylene chains with vinyl groups at the ends (macromer). The macromers were extended by block-copolymerization with vinyl acetate, then saponified resulting in PE/PVA block co-polymer. The block copolymer was molded into sheets which were subsequently heat-treated in contact with hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. Depending on the media, the sheet surface changed at high temperature reversibly from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and vice versa. The surface property was fixed by quenching because both blocks were able to crystallize. Thus the surface of this material can be tailored for various purposes at high temperature, and then used in stable at room temperature.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Immobilization of Photoelectric Dye on the Polyethylene FilmSurface1620ENTetsuyaUchidaSanaeIshimaruKaoruShimamuraAkihitoUjiToshihikoMatsuoHiroshiOhtsuki10.18926/14136PE film was treated with fuming nitric acid at 80 for 20 min, resulting in introduction of COOH moieties on the film surface. The COOHfs were reacted with ethylenediamine,
whose amino groups were used for linking with (2-[4-(dibutylamino)phenyl]ethenyl)-3-carboxy-methylbenzo-thiazolium, photoelectric dye (NK-5962), which absorbs visible light and converts the photon energy to electric potentials. The dye molecules were immobilized
on the PE film surface and they were able to stimulate chick retinal tissues on incidence of visible light. These facts hopefully lead to development of an artificial retinal prosthesis.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999A Study of Facility Layout Method in Recycling Plant using AGV111119ENYoshiomiMunesawaHirokazuOsaki10.18926/19692Our country faces a serious problem of the environmental pollution by the production and the large quantity consumption of the industry product. The thoroughness of resources recycling has become necessary to solve these problems. As for the product design and the production control, how productivity should be improved has been discussed with extreme emphasis. But from now, as for the product design, both assemblability and disassemblability must be taken into consideration at the same time. And also in production management, it must be investigated how the products can be recycled in the low cost. Therfore, the facility layout method with two phases in recycling plant, which is composed of both the procedure for the layout of facility group and the procedure for the layout of intermal facility group by the optimal solution method and the suboptimal solution method by neural network is proposed in this paper.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Intelligent Monitoring System Using Multiviewpoints for Teleperation9196ENYoshiomiMunesawaHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajihara10.18926/19682In this paper, we propose the method to determine the position of the 2 cameras for the multiviewpoints as the robot is the work place. The optical axit's direction of the 1st camera is determined in the base ot work contents in teleoperation. The multiviewpoints system uses the 2 camera units that aren't installed side by side, so that the direction of the 2nd camera is decided in the base of the angle between the optical axes' direction of 2 cameras. Next, the distance from the camera to the work place is determined according to the distance resolution of image on the monitor, and the camera type of which the point-blank range is not this distance is selected. And the efficacy ot this system is examined with an experiment.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713311998A Method for Designing an Automatic Monitoring System for Unmanned Rooms5357ENHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYosiomiMunesawa10.18926/19616A method for designing a monitoring system with multiple cameras is proposed in order to supervise and recognize the progress of wide work area. First, a wide view camera is deveeloped by combining several usual cameras so that its visual angle could cover more than /2. Secondly, A method for determining the number and location points of cameras is proposed by considering the shape of monitored area and the installation cost of cameras. The monitored area is divided into three kinds of basic shape (rectangular form, L form and convex form). For every basic shape area, the camera is located at the vertex pasition, so that the whole area can be monitored by the camera.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713311998The Recognition Methods Combined Image Processing With 2D or 3D CAD Information (CAD/IP)4752ENMitsuruJindaiHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYosiomiMunesawa10.18926/19615In this paper, we propose the recognition methods by image processing using 2D or 3D CAD. In the case of 2D CAD, an object is recognized by comparing five characters calculated from the center of gravity and contour. In the case of 3D CAD, there are two recognition methods. Firstly 3D CAD figure is transformed into 2D CAD figures. And an object is recognized by comparing 2D CAD figures with inputted images. Secondly the three dimensional coordinates of vertexes on an object are calculated from the images taken from some cameras and compared 3D coordinates with those of 3D CAD figures and recognized the sort of an object.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713311998Recognition Index of Part and Unit by Discrimination Characteristics3945ENYoshiomiMunesawaHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajihara10.18926/19612In this paper, we propose a recognition index to evaluate the complexity of discrimination among parts and units. The parts and units are classified into some groups (the number of groups is shown as n) by one characteristic, such as color, shape, size and so on. The recognition index of each is denoted as log(2) (n+1) by the information quantity formula. The recognition diagram shows the classfication of parts and units into only one part and unit by the structure of a characteristic. Further we propose the line balancing method for assembly line based on the working time and recognition index.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713311998A Study on Robot System to Hand Surgical Intrument to a Surgeon in a Surgery (1st Report, Development of Surgical Instrument Recognition System)3137ENHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYoshiomiMunesawaShujiSeki10.18926/19610The nurse supporting robot system to prepare and hand surgical instruments to a surgeon is proposed to reduce work of nurse in a surgical operation. In this paper, the surgical instrument recognition system (SIRS) is developed to hand the surgical instruments to a surgeon by the robot. The characteristics ot the instruments are area of the instruments, ratio of minimum center-contour distance to maximum one and its outline contour, are recognized by using the image processing. Kinds of the instruments are distinguished by these characteristics.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Disassembly System using an Impact Hammer for the Material Recycling191196ENYoshiomiMunesawaHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajihara10.18926/15378We developed the disassembly system that uses the impulsive load and disassembly tools to disassemble used appliances economically. The main components of this system are impulse hammer, a lift table and developed disassembly tools. Several types of disassembly tools are developed to punch out fastened portion on a part and cut off the shaft of screw or connection pin of IC-chip. A simulation model is proposed to explain and formulate how the fastening point of product is broken and cut. Three kinds of disassembly tools are designed. The actual disassembly system is developed by using proposed simulation models and disassembly tools.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001A Method for Design Production System with Multi Energy Resources183189ENHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYoshiomiMunesawa10.18926/15376This research proposes a strategy for reducing both electricity charge and environmental load by considering multi energy sources. The reduction of the contract electric demand is considered, and its differential cost is used for purchasing substitute power sources. Some variables, such as the amount of reduced contract demand, and amount of electricity are generated by each substitute power source. By using those variables, we formulate a simulation model that enables to minimize the energy cost and environmental cost.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Cooperative Handling Robot with Human Beings177182ENHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYoshiomiMunesawa10.18926/15375The focus of this paper is on the analysis of delivery motion of human, development of an image processing method based on the motion analysis and development of the cooperative delivery robot using the image processing method. The proposed image processing method uses two cameras, and it uses a stereo reconstruction technique for measuring position and postures of hands. In addition, this image processing method recognize the number of fingers extending consciously, so the cooperative human beings could choose the kind of tool which he wants by holding out his hand in front of cameras.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001An Image Processing Method for Handling Subject Piled in a Container169175ENHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYoshiomiMunesawa10.18926/15373We propose an image processing method for part handling robot for picking up subjects piled in a container. Line laser light is projected on subjects, and its external shape is detected by many segments of a line laser, and pitch, roll, and yaw angles of subject are recognized precisely. A priority rule is settled to choose one subject that is taken out. This rule is determined by considering the grasping space, the position of a subject, the movement space of hand and so on.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Development of Assembly Robot System for Flexible Belt-Shaped Subject163168ENHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYoshiomiMunesawa10.18926/15371We develop an assembly robot system for assembling the flexible belt-shaped subject. An image processing method is developed to recognize the belt-shaped subject. This method is able to determine the grasping point and grasping angle for piking up a subject by a multiple hands unit. CAD information is used to determine the grasping point. The multiple hands unit is developed, which is able to grasp all grasping points of a subject at a time. In addition, the image processing method is used to judge whether a subject is fastened accurately at right position or not during the assembly.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Methods for Tele-Operation of Mobile Type Maintenance Robot155161ENYoshiomiMunesawaYasuhiroKajiharaHirokazuOsaki10.18926/15368This paper proposes a concept of a mobile type maintenance robot (MMR in shortly) that is controlled by the tele-operation for assuring the safety and health improvement of work forces. The main components of this system are the industrial robot, an image processing unit, vehicle and computers for tele-operation. Our focus is paid on a method that determine a pathway to move every places where troubles would occur. This method makes it possible that the MMR could arrive any place in the factory with three times of turns at most. Additionally, turning radius of the vehicle is considered for correcting the pathway near the corners to make it possible that it arrives to the place accurately.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713011995A Method for Standardizing Parts with Integer Programming17ENYasuhiroKajiharaHirokazuOsakiYoshiomiMunesawa10.18926/15365A method for standardizing parts is proposed. This method aims to reduce the sort of parts for cutting the manufacturing cost and for improving specifications of parts. Two linear mathematical programming models are proposed for standardizing the parts. One model aims at cutting cost half without causing any degradation of
mechanical specifications of parts. The other model aims at doubling mechanical specifications of parts below the acceptable manufacturing cost. These models are formulated in 0-1 integer programming forms. The integer programming model shows which part is common to other parts. An example is shown to demonstrate the use of the developed method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Inspection Method by Comparing CAD Figure with Processed Image97103ENMitsuruJindaiHirokazuOsakiYasuhiroKajiharaYoshiomiMunesawa10.18926/15297We propose the recognition method of bridge soldering base metal on the circuits by comparing CAD figure and input image of image processing to locate the soldering iron tip accurately to secure the high quality Firstly, three dimensional CAD assembly drawing of circuits which are assembled perpendicularly in each other is projected on an imaginary two dimensional screen which is vertical to the optical axis of the camera The projected image is used as the standard CAD figure to inspect the location of the bridge soldering base metal. The positions among the bridge soldering base metals show the line state. So this line (connecting line) is used as the reference line to inspect the location of the bridge soldering base metal. The characteristics of the standard figure are represented by the connecting line, edge line and center points of base metal. Secondly, the position and gradient of connecting line among bridge soldering base metals in the input image is estimated. And the position of base metal and assembly accuracy of circuit units are calculated by comparing the shape and position of each base metal with its standard figure based on the connecting line Furthermore, the length between the opposite edges of the base metals are calculated to inspect the positions and the assemble accuracy of circuit units.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712521991Mechanical Characteristics of Cast Ti Fiber-Reinforced Mg Composite18ENHiroyukiOkadaMoritakaHidaAkiraSakakibaraYoshitoTakemoto10.18926/15500Tensile strength and elongation of cast magnesium reinforced with titanium fiber were measured by tensile test. The pull-out test of a titanium rod partially embedded in a magnesium matrix was performed to evaluate interfacial bonding strength between magnesium and titanium. It was found that when the fiber volume fraction was changed from 1% to 14%, the tensile strength was improved with increase of volume fraction, while the improvement of elongation tended to be restrained beyond the volume fraction of 10%. The interfacial strength was revealed to be strong, and this was substantiated by the scanning electron microscopy showing an excellent wettability between the titanium fiber and the magnesium matrix.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002Preparation of alginic acid layers on solid substrates for biomedical applications6772ENTomohikoYoshiokaKanjiTsuruSatoshiHayakawaAkiyoshiOsaka10.18926/47027Alginic acid was immobilized on -aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated glass as a model substrate since an alginic acid layer was known to prevent cell adhesion. The surface was characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. The coated substrates adsorbed practically no calcium phosphates on their surfaces when soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) of Kolrubo recipe. Since calcium ions are one of the factors for blood clotting, the present alginic acid coating is one of the candidates to improve blood compatibility of clinical materials.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713612001Observation of Orientation Change During Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Copper by EBSD Method16ENRyoujiKondouTakejiAbeNaoyaTadaIchiroShimizu10.18926/46995Change in crystal orientation and strain of individual grains during tensile plastic deformation are studied to clarify on the microscopic deformation behavior of polycrystalline copper. The orientation of grain is measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique in the scanning electron microscope. The principal strain of grain is also measured by obtaining the approximated ellipse of strain distribution. The deformation of grains dependent on their initial orientation and the rotation of the principal strain during uniaxial tension are clarified.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Apatite Formation on Electrochemically Treated Titanium7984ENAkiyoshiOsakaSatoshiHayakawaKanjiTsuru10.18926/19677A titanium oxide gel was electrochemically prepared on Ti with a cell consisting of Ti as the working electrode, Pt as the counter one, AgCl as the reference one, and an aqueous solution of 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO(3))(2) as the electrolyte solution. The Ti electrode was kept at 9.5V for 1 hr for oxidation and subsequently kept at-3.0V for 10 min (Ca9.5-3.0):calcium ions were expected to be adsorbed at the latter treatment. Other Ti specimen was kept at -3.0V for 10 min (Ca-3.0). Both specimens were found so bioactive as to deposit apatite in 12 hr (Ca9.5-3.0) and in 1 day (Ca-3.0) when soaked in a simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution). Calcium carbonate detected on the surface of Ca9.5-3.0 caused no harmful effects on spontaneous deposition of apatite in the fluid.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071321-21998Study on Electrical Discharge Machining Characteristics of Coated Electrodes16ENChangningGuoYoshiyukiUnoAkiraOkadaTakashiTakagi10.18926/19628Low electrode wear EDM is attained by the adhesion of heat resolved carbon made from kerosine type machining fluid to the electrode end surface. This phenomenon, however, occurs only under long pulse duration. Therefore, the low electrode wear EDM under finishing condition is impossible so far. In the previous paper, the authors developed a turbostratic carbon electrode whose structure is very similar to the heat resolved carbon generated in EDM process and made it clear that the low electrode wear EDM was possible by using the electrode even under finishing condition. In this study, a carbon coated electrode and a SiC coated one which can be made rapidly at low cost were developed and their EDM characteristics were investigated. Experimental analysis pointed it out that both electrodes were effective in reducing electrode wear under finishing condition.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713121997Bioactive Calcium Borosilicate Glasses for Enameling Titanium4551ENAkiyoshiOsakaSatoshiHayakawaChikaraOhtsuki10.18926/19596The thermal expansion coefficient of some bioactive glasses in the system CaO-SiO(2)-B(2)O(3) were adjusted to be similar to that of titanium by controlling the composition. A glass of composition 45CaO30SiO(2)25B(2)O(3) was selected among those as the enameling glass. A slurry was prepared by mixing the glass powder and ethanal to be developed on titanium and heated at 740 for 30 min. Thus treated specimen was soaked in a simulated body fluid (Kokubo solutiion). FT-IR reflection and thin film X-ray diffraction analyses indicated apatite formation on the glass coating layer within 12 h of soaking in the fluid. Thus titanium could be provided with bioactivity due to the enameling.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713121997Bioactivity of Nb(V) and Ta(V)-Doped Calcium Silicate Glasses3944ENSatoshiHayakawaChikaraOhtsukiAkiyoshiOsaka10.18926/19594Nb(2)O(5)-and Ta(2)O(5)-doped calcium si1icate glasses were soaked for various periods in a simulated body fluid(Kokubo solution) up to 30 days. Apatite formation ability of the surface of these glasses were investigated with thin-film X-ray diffraction and FT-IR reflection spectroscopy. The effects of these additive oxides on the bioactivity of CaOSiO(2) based glass were discussed. A small amount of Nb(2)O(5) and Ta(2)O(5) suppressed the rate of silica hydrogel layer formation and the apatite formation on the surface of the glasses. The rate of the apatite nucleation on the surface of Nb(2)O(5)-doped calcium silicate glass was slower than that on the surface of Ta(2)O(5)-doped calcium silicate glass. It was concluded that the decrease in the apatite forming ability of calcium silicate glasses by these additive oxides is attributed to the suppression of formation of silica hydrogel layer which plays an important role in apatite nucleation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071341-22000Energy Distribution in Electrical Discharge Machining with Graphite Electrode1926ENAkiraOkadaYoshiyukiUnoIsaoOkajima10.18926/15359In EDM, the machining characteristics greatly depend on the energy distribution. Therefore, it is very important to clarify the energy distribution for understanding various phenomena in EDM. In this paper, the energy distribution in EDM with graphite electrode is investigated by measuring the temperatures of electrode and workpiece. Experimental analysis shows that the material removal rate depends on energy density while the electrode wear greatly depends on the adhesion of heat resolved carbon from machining fluid, and the energies distributed into electrode and workpiece are almost constant regardless of pulse duration.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071351-22001Microscopic Observation of Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Aluminum by Laser Scanning Microscope18ENTakejiAbeIchiroShimizu10.18926/15344Free surface of polycrystalline metal becomes roughened after plastic deformation. The surface roughening is closely related to the inhomogeneity of polycrystalline metals, that is, to the inhomogeneous plastic deformation of respective grains. In the present study, inhomogeneous deformation on the free surface of polycrystalline aluminum specimen during uniaxial tension is studied. The inhomogeneous deformation of grains in the central area of the free surface of specimen is observed by the laser scanning microscope, while the inhomogeneous deformation perpendicular to the surface is studied by the laser scanning microscope as well as the stylus measuring instrument. It is shown that the surface roughness and the strain of respective grains increase with the applied strain. Discussions are made on the change in the surface roughness, the strain in each grain and the slip-line angles with the applied strain.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Microscopic Surface Change of Polycrystalline Aluminum duringTensile Plastic Deformation715ENXiaoqunWangTakejiAbeNaoyaTadaIchiroShimizu10.18926/14135Roughening on free surface of polycrystalline metal during plastic deformation is closely related to the
inhomogeneous deformation in the respective grain at the surface. Uniaxial tensile tests are carried out on
annealed pure aluminum sheet specimens with various averaged grain sizes. The roughening is measured by
a 3-dimensional stylus instrument to examine the roughness change in both sides of specimen surfaces at each strain. The irregularities on one side are reversed on the backside, when the averaged grain size is as large as the thickness of the specimen. Discussions are made on the relation between the surface shapes of both sides adopting the cross correlation factor. The strains of respective grains are also measured from the grain boundary shape before and after plastic deformation. There are some deviations in the strains of the grains and their standard deviation increases with the applied strain.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712621992Preparation and Characterization of Ti(2)O(3) Films Deposited on Sapphire Substrate by Activated Reactive Evaporation Method6975ENTatsuoFujiiTokuroNanbaAkiyoshiOsakaYoshinariMiuraJunTakada10.18926/15436(001)-oriented Ti(2)O(3) films were epitaxially grown on a(001)-face of sapphire single-crystalline substrate by an activated reactive evaporation method. The formation ranges of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric Ti(2)O(3) films were determined as a function of the substrate temperature (Ts), the oxygen pressure (Po(2)) and the deposition rate. Stoichiometric Ti(2)O(3) films were grown at Ts673K under Po(2)1.0~10(-4)Torr, which showed the metal-insulator transition with a sharp change in electrical resistivity from 3.5~10(-2) to 2.6~10(-3)cm at 361K. Nonstoichiometric films prepared under less oxidized conditions did not exhibit the transition. The nonstoichiometry of the Ti(2)O(3)films was discussed in terms of excess Ti ions.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713311998Measurement of saturated solubilities and diffusion coefficients of pure gases to mineral oil1930ENSeiichiWashioSatoshiTakahashiChikashiImotoAtsumasaYoshida10.18926/19608The present paper deals with measurements of the diffusion coefficients as well as the saturated solubilities of single component gases such as N(2), O(2) and CO(2) to a mineral oil. The method to determine the diffusivity is based upon measuring the pressure changes caused by the one-dimensional diffusion between the gas and the oil enclosed in an airtight container. For N(2) and O(2) the profiles of the measured pressure changes agree well with those predicted by diffusion theory, whereas that is not the case with CO(2). Although the reason why CO(2) does not seem to obey diffusion theory has yet to be studied, it may suggest the possibility that the diffusion coefficient varies with the pressure, considering that the range of pressure change in the diffusivity measurement was much obtained by this method fell within }30% around the average. Moreover the solubility measurements have made clear that Henry's law holds true between the three pure gases and the oils tested, and that O(2) and CO(2) dissolve into the oil approximately two and ten times more, respectively, than N(2).No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712911994Electronic States in Semiconductor Quantum Dot with Fluctuating Interfaces714ENHirooTotsujiShigetoshiNaraChiekoTotsuji10.18926/20011Effects of interface fluctuations on the electronic states in semiconductor quantum dots are analyzed on the basis of numerical solutions for ground state wave functions and
energy eigenvalues. It is shown that the effective volume of confinement becomes smaller than the real volume of quantum dots due to fluctuation. This effect comes from the
fact that the wave functions with larger characteristic wavelength are not able to deform themselves following the fluctuation of interfaces exactly.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712821994Numerical Simulation of Quantum Systems -Dynamics of Electrons in Microstructures-4552ENHirooTotsujiSeijiHashimotoShigetoshiNara10.18926/15460Difficulties in simulating systems composed of classical and quantum particles lie in the treatment of the many-body interactions between quantum particles and the geometrical variety of configurations of classical particles. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have developed some numerical methods and applied them to simple cases. As for stationary states, the finite element method provides us with sufficient geometrical freedom.
Combined with the Kohn-Sham equation based on the density
functional theory, this method virtually satisfies our requirement. In order to investigate time-dependent phenomena, we apply the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation. Adopting the finite difference method, we are able to follow the development of quantum many-body system. As an example, we estimate the effects of the potential height, the electric field, and many-body interactions in some transition processes in quantum wells coupled by a tunneling barrier. This example is important in itself in relation to semiconductor superlattices and also serves as a benchmark for quantum simulations, variety of geometry
corresponding to that of classical particles.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712621992Memory Search using Genetic Algorithms and a Neural Network Model111128ENShigetoshiNara10.18926/15443An information processing task which generates combinatorial explosion and program complexity when it is treated by a serial algorithm is investigated using both Genetic Algorithms (GA) and a neural network model (NN). The task in question is to find a target memory from a set of stored entries in the form of "attractors" in a high dimensional state space. The representation of entries in the memory is distributed ("an auto associative neural network" in this paper), and the problem is to find an attractor under a given access information where the uniqueness or even existence of a solution is not always guaranteed ( an ill-posed problem ). The GA is used as an algorithm for generating a search orbit to search effectively for a state which satisfies the access condition and belongs to the target attractor basin in state space. The NN is used to retrieve the corresponding entry from the network. The results of our computer simulation indicate that the present method is superior to a search method which uses random walk in state space. Our technique may prove useful in the realization of flexible and adaptive information processing, since pattern search in high dimensional state spaces is common in various kinds of parallel information processing.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712811993Ground State of Coupled Quantum Wires2738ENHirooTotsujiShigetoshiNara10.18926/15434The ground states of interacting electrons in coupled quantum wires are analyzed on the basis of the density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential is calculated from 'exact' results given by the Green's function Monte Carlo method in two and three dimensions. It is shown that the critical density signifying the change from symmetrical to asymmetrical ground state is weakly dependent on the details of the exchange-correlation potential. These critical values are compared with the result of the three-dimensional analysis for a single wire.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712811993A Simple Method to Evaluate Structural Stability of Group IV and III-V Semiconductors125ENShigetoshiNaraHirooTotsuji10.18926/15432The structural stabilities of bulk Si, Ge, and GaAs are discussed based on the total energy evaluated by the summation of the band structure energy and the short-range repulsive potential between ions. The band structure energy
is calculated by means of the simple tight-binding method. The tight-binding parameters are determined so as to fit to the results of a pseude potential calculation and Harrison's model is employed to include the influence of lattice deformation. The short-range-force is assumed to be of the exponential form and parameters are determined so as to reproduce an experimental value of bulk modulus. This treatment qualitatively well describes structural properties in spite of the simple computational procedure and roughly gives the known variation of the total energy for a <100> uniaxial strain. This method is able to be applied to an investigation of the structural stabilities of superlattices, for example, a strained layer superlattice consisting of hetero-semiconductors.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712611991Molecular Dynamics ofa Coulomb System with Deformable Periodic Boundary Conditions5159ENHirooTotsujiShigetoshiNara10.18926/15418Variable shape molecular dynamics is formulated for the one-component plasma and the structural transition from the fcc lattice to the bcc lattice has been observed. It is emphasized that the condition of constant volume should be imposed when deformations of periodic boundary conditions are taken into account.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712721993Complex Dynamics and Search in A Cycle-Memory Neural Network1940ENShigetoshiNaraHirooTotsuji10.18926/15403Numerical simulations of a single layer recurrent neural network model in which the synaptic connection matrix is formed by summing cyclic products of succesive patterns show that complex dynamics can occur with the reduction of a connectivity parameter which is the number of connection between neurons. The structure in these dynamics is discussed from the viewpoint of realizing complex function using complex dynamics.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712711992Electronic States and Electron Wave Transfer in Coupled Quantum Wires and Its Control by Externally Applied Electric Field6579ENShigetoshiNaraHirooTotsuji10.18926/15395Quantum mechnical electron wave transfer between two quantum wires which are weakly coupled via a thin potential barrier is considered. The total electronic states are calculated with both analytical ( no field case ) and numerical methods ( under applied electric fields ). The transfer efficiency is evaluated for several specified cases of geometrical structures, potential barrier heights and the externally applied electric field. Estimated trasfer time is of the order of one picosecond in typical mesoscopic structures. The model in this paper can be used to determine important structure parameters for experiments on electron directional coupler controled by external elctric field.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712711992Intrinsic Bistability of Coupled Quantum Wires: Localization due to Many-Body Effects5564ENHirooTotsujiShigetoshiNara10.18926/15394The ground state of a system of electrons accumulated in a pair of coupled symmetric quantum wires is analyzed on the basis of density functional theory. It is shown that, in a domain of physical parameters, electrons are localized in either of wires. The main contribution to the total energy of this system comes from the Hartree energy, or the electrostatic energy, and the exchange-correlation energy between electrons. The ground state is determined by a competition between these contributions: We have symmetric electron distributions when the Hartree energy dominates and asymmetric (localized) states are realized in the opposite case. This kind of simple system with bistable electronic states may be applied to semiconductor memory devices.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713011995Molecular Dynamics of Yukawa System (Dust Plasma) with Deformable Periodic Boundary Conditions: Formulation7587ENHirooTotsujiYoshihikoInoueTokunariKishimotoChiekoTotsujiShigetoshiNara10.18926/15381Molecular dynamics of the Yukawa system, the system of particles interacting via the Yukawa or the screened Coulomb potential, are formulated for various statistical ensembles and external conditions. The Yukawa potential smoothly interpolates the long-range Coulomb and the short-range interactions by adjusting a single parameter, the
screening length. In order to reduce the effect of boundaries, the periodic boundary conditions are imposed and the deformations of the fundamental vectors of periodicity are taken into account. Ewald-type expressions for interaction energy, force, and kinematic pressure are
given explicitly.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Simulation of Deformation of Ni Twinned Nanocrystal Model by Molecular Dynamics18ENYasuhiroOmuraMoritakaHidaAkiraSakakibaraYoshitoTakemoto10.18926/19648Molecular dynamics simulation of nickel crystal under uniaxial tensile and compressive deformation was performed for single nenocrystal model and twinned nanocrystal model composed of 1550 atoms using EAM (embedded atom method) potential with the object of investigating deformation induced phase tranformation (especially twin deformation). In the case of single nanocrystal model, the evolution and development of twin deformation, (111)[11(2)], is observed under compressive loading in [001] direction, whereas either slip or twin deformation is not recognized under tensile loading. In the case of twinned nanocrystal model, twin, (111)[11(2)], decreases and disappears under tensile loading, and develops under compressive loading, It is suggested from the difference of results between single nanocrystal model and twinned nanocrystal model that it is easy for twin to induce local deformation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713121997Internal Structure and Phase Transformation of Ti-V Alloy Fine Particles1120ENYoshitoTakemotoMoritakaHida10.18926/19589Fine particles of Ti-V alloy were prepared by means of arc method and were investigated on internal structure and phase transformation using HR-TEM and EDS. Martensite phase was observed in a particle containing comparatively low concentration of V, and phase was also found to exist in a nearly 15% V particle. The structure of the phase in the fine particle is remarkably expanded in comparison with the bulk sample, and the phase is unstable, so that it has disappeared in a few seconds during TEM observation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713121997Microstructure of Oxide Layers Formed on Magnesium Surface at Elevated Temperature110ENYoshitoTakemotoMoritakaHida10.18926/19588The microstructure of oxidizing magnesium at elevated temperatures has been studied using HR-TEM, SEM and EDS. Two kinds of thin magnesium specimen for TEM observation were prepared. One was oxidized after preparing TEM foil of magnesium, the other was prepared from an oxidized bulk magnesium for observing the cross-section of oxide/Mg interfacial region. In the former, several oxides(MgO) morphologies were observed depending on the temperature and time of the oxidization. The growth of needle-like oxides formed at 573K and mottled oxides formed at 773K were recognized as a remarkable phenomenon belonging to the local oxidization. These oxides were composed of poly-crystal. The thin uniform oxidization layer was also observed in all conditions. In the cross-sectional observation, the local oxide layer, nearly 300nm in thickness, on the matrix(Mg) were observed. The thin uniform oxidized layer of bulk samples was identified as a kind of modified layer (~40nm in thickness) in which the formation of HR-TEM lattice fringes were prevented by the strain due to the slight oxidization.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712421990Functional Testing of an ALU8998ENTokumiYokohira10.18926/15505This paper considers a test set for an ALU with look ahead carry generators(LCGs). The ALU is logically partitioned into two groups of blocks, the group of one-bit operation units and LCG group. Each group is tested in parallel and exhaustively, independent of the other. And an easily testable design is applied to several blocks for decreasing the number of the input combinations of them. Under the easily testable design, a minimum test set for each group is generated, and the upper and lower bounds for
a minimum test for the ALU are derived. The difference of the lower and upper bounds is not large, and a test set whose number of test vectors is equal to the upper bound can be easily obtained as the union of minimum test sets for two groups. Hence, the union can be used as a complete and practical test set for the ALU.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712421990Fine Particles of Ti and Ti-Mo Alloy Prepared by Gas Evaporation19ENMasayukiUmemotoYoshitoTakemotoAkiraSakakibaraMoritakaHida10.18926/15489Fine particles of Ti-Mo alloy were prepared by evaporation. When Ti-40at % Mo alloy was evaporated on tungsten filament, fine particles of Ti contaminated with W were obtained. These particles were polyhedron in shape and 10`250nm in diameter. Average diameter and size distribution increased with pressure of argon gas (100`600 Torr). When pure Ti was placed on the Mo filament and evaporated from melt down of heated Mo filament in helium gas, fine particles of pure Ti and of Ti-Mo alloy were obtained. In this case, Ti particles were of indeterminate form and of several tens nm in diameter, and their diffraction pattern was of common -Ti. On the other hand, composition of the Ti-Mo particles was determined to be 18at % Mo by an analysis of EDX. Structure of Ti-Mo particles could not be determined because their diameters were more than 600nm. The temperature of Mo filament, for the most part, was about 1800, and there pure Ti particles were produced. The temperature of the fused part of the filament was locally higher than 2600, and there Ti-Mo particles were produced. Fine structures of contact region among some Ti particles were observed with HRTEM.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712821994X-Ray Topographic Observation of Strain Generated by Thin Film (TiN) on Silicon Surface1320ENHisaoKusumotoMoritakaHidaAkiraSakakibaraNorihideNishidaYoshitoTakemotoMasuoYamada10.18926/15453The strain in Si substrate induced by locally ion-plated thin film of TiN was observed by X-ray topograph (Lang technique). Circular TiN film was deposited on one side of the Si surface. In all topographs the highest blackness attributed to kinematical diffraction effect occurred at the film edge. Rosette pattern with four-lobes was observed around the film. Blackness as a whole increased with the film thickness. Strain was observed in the depth direction of substrate by limited projection method. When the slit width was narrowed, the kinematical images disappeared, and white images appeared at the film edge. All the contrast disappeared when the TiN film was completely removed in boiling HNO(3). The strain induced by the film deposition was proved to be elastic.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712821994Internal Structure and Phase Transformation of Ti-Mo Alloy Fine Particles17ENYoshitoTakemotoAkiraSakakibaraMoritakaHida10.18926/15448Fine particles of Ti-Mo alloy have been prepared by means of arc method, and investigated on internal structure and phase transformation using HR-TEM and EDS. Martensite phase was observed in a particle containing comparatively low concentration of Mo, and phase was also found to exist in a nearly 14 % M0 particle. The structure of the phase in the fine particle is expanded and remarkably unstable in comparison with the bulk sample, so that it has disappeared in a few seconds during TEM observation. Moreover, the structure of Ti-Mo particles has changed to the unusual fcc phase with irradiation of a strong electron beam.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713021996Nature of Brittle Fracture in Aged Ti-Mo Alloy17ENYoshitoTakemotoMoritakaHidaAkiraSakakibara10.18926/15397The mechanism of brittle fracture in Ti-14mass % Mo alloy aged for 1x10(6)s at 623K was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic hardness test (DHT) on the structure deformed by means of tensile elongation at elevated temperature or cold rolling. Many band products
were observed by TEM in either deformed specimens. These band products were identified to neither slips nor twinning bands, moreover, they were different from , ' and " phases. The band product consisted of phase and granular unknown phase which was transformed by deformation
from phase. The newly discovered phase, named " phase, in the band products had a body-centered triclinic structure. The " was similar to the zone with respect to the morphology and the concentration of Mo, but it resembled in structure. The result of DHT on the band products and the matrix showed that the band products were softer than the matrix. It is suggested that the band
products are easily deformed because of the disappearance of obstacles such as phase, and consequently behave like paths to lead cracks preferentially.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712411989Effects of Drive System Lubricant Additives upon Rolling Fatigue of Carburized and Hardened Steel Rollers112ENAkiraYoshidaYujiOhueMasahiroFujii10.18926/15466To clarify the effects of a drive system lubricant additive upon rolling fatigue of rollers manufactured from carburized and hardened steel, three types of oil were used as lubricants: one mineral base oil and the other two mineral base oils to which an S-P additive package and ATF additive package were added, respectively. These specimens were tested for sliding/rolling fatigue and examined for failure on the surface, rolling fatigue strength, and other properties. Roller surface temperatures and inter-roller frictional coefficients were found scarcely affected by the type of oil used. Irrespective of the difference in oil type, failure on the surface was found to be entirely spalling attributable to cracks generated in the subsurface. The depth at which spalling cracks had taken place was found nearly coincident with the depth at which a ratio of reversing orthogonal shear stress to hardness had amplitude A(Tyz/Hv) maximized. These depths were larger as Hertz stress became more prominent. Nevertheless, they were found hardly affected by the type of oil. Although rolling fatigue strength did not show a significant difference dependent upon the type of oil, it may be said that fatigue life would be somewhat negatively affected by an extreme pressure coated film with a content of sulfur and phosphorus.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713912005Improving Methods of Wear Resistance in Heavy Loaded SlidingFriction Pairs16ENMasahiroFujiiAkiraYoshida10.18926/14134Improvement of wear resistance and durability of machine elements with sliding friction pairs is the important tribological problems. The wear resistance
has been determined with many configurative parameters, technological parameters, and operational parameters. In this study kinematics of cylindrical joint (CJ), whose motion is reciprocating and rotating, and influence of various parameters on wear resistance of friction pair was investigated.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712511990Determining Hydraulic Properties of Multilayered Aquifers from Pumping Test Data by Parameter Estimation99109ENMakotoNishigakiYujiTakeshitaIichiroKono10.18926/15498In this paper, a numerical procedure of determining hydraulic properties in multilayered aquifers are presented. From pumping test data in multilayered aquifers, the coefficient of permeability and specific storage for each aquifer are determined by using a combination of finite element analysis and nonlinear least-squares optimization technique. This study especially points out necessity of stress-flow coupling analysis to explain the behaviors of pressure head in multilayered aquifer during pumping test. As a example, practical pumping test data were evaluate and the coefficients of permeability and specific storage of aquifers and aquitard were obtained.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712411989Determination of Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Properties by Transient Flow Experiments and Parameter Estimation107114ENIichiroKohnoMakotoNishigakiYujiTakeshita10.18926/15483The numerical feasibility of determining soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions simultaneously from one-dimensional transient flow experiments in the laboratory by parameter estimation method is evaluated. Soil hydraulic properties are assumed to be represented by van Genuchten's closed-form expressions involving two unknown parameters: coefficients and n . These parameters are evaluated by nonlinear least-squares fitting of predicted and observed pressure head with time. Gravity drainage experiments are performed for Toyoura standard sand to evaluate the adequacy of this proposed method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071221988An Experimental Study on Levee Failure Caused by Seepage and Preventive Measures4562ENIichiroKohnoMakotoNishigakiYujiTakeshita10.18926/15451There are two classifications of the mechanism of levee failure caused by floods; local seepage failure and progressive failure. The fundamental causes of levee failure produced by piping and erosion were studied and the safety of river leves during floods evaluated in terms of soil machanics. The critical hydraulic gradient and the process of progressive failure were obtained from one- and two- dimensional model experiments for piping and erosion. Problems inherent in and preventive measures against levee failure are discussed. In particular, effects of the Tsukinowa method, the most representative Japanese flood fighting method, were studied experimentally and improvements proposed.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712811993Evaluation of closed-form analytical models for predicting unsaturated soil hydraulic properties6169ENYujiTakeshitaIichiroKohno10.18926/15438Knowledge of the unsaturated soil hydraulic properties is essential requirement for prediction of seepage flow and contaminant transport through the vadose zone. Unfortunately, these parameters are usually time consuming and expensive to measure in the field and laboratory. At the present condition, there are few data accumulation for Japanese soils. In this paper, van Genuchten's closed-form
expressions are described to estimate unsaturated soil hydraulic properties. To evaluate the adequacy of these expressions, comparisons are performed between observed and calculated unsaturated hydraulic properties for typical Japanese soils.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712521991A Procedure for Settling Multi-Criteria Problem by a Small Group of Decision Makers5567ENYoshimasaKameyamaHayatoshiSayamaKazuhikoSuzuki10.18926/15511AHP can handle decision-making problems involving several criteria when some of these are difficult or impossible to compare other than numerically. When a small group of decision makers settle the multi-criteria problem by AHP, the members of group could not often reach an agreement with hierarchic structure involving objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives because they have different
positions, interests, and opinions. Further, the members have different importances for criteria and sub-criteria, and have dissimilar preferences for alternatives. In this article, we reveal the troubleness of AHP in case of being used by a small group of decision makers. Moreover, we proposed a procedure of AHP which the members of group could easily agree with the structure of problem and the weights of criteria etc.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712521991Prediction of Transient and Steady Turbulent Free Subsonic Air Jets3954ENEijiTomitaYoshisukeHamamoto10.18926/15510Velocity distributions and related parameters of@transient and steady, turbulent air jets issuing under atmospheric conditions at Mach 0.14, 0.33 and 0.5 have been predicted using Navier-Stokes(N-S) equations for compressible flow and incompressible flow independently with the k- model. The closeness and consistence of the results predicted by the N-S equations for compressible and incompressible flows as well as with relevant measurement or similar prediction show that the incompressible flow assumption for at least some subsonic gas jets issuing at velocities higher than Mach 0.3, the general limit for incompressible fluid flow, can be reasonably accurate particularly in the main fully developed flow region. This suggests that the divergence term in source terms of the momentum, turbulence energy and its dissipation rate equations have negligible effects for some seemingly compressible high speed, subsonic free gas jets. The computation time is reduced by at least 18 % when incompressible flow assumption is used.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712521991Numerical Calculation of a Transient Methane Gas Jet Discharging into Quiescent Atmosphere at Mach One2538ENEijiTomiaYoshisukeHamamoto10.18926/15508A suddenly started cold methane gas jet issuing from a 1 mm diameter orifice into still air at Mach one has been predicted using the two-equation, high Reynolds number version of k- turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm which employs so called primitive variables and a hybrid scheme for treating combined diffusion and convection. Global trends of predicted radial distributions of velocity, temperature, methane concentration in the steady rear part of the transient jet and axial jet tip penetration compare reasonably well with universal profiles representing measurement for the steady jet particularly in the fully developed turbulent core and semi-empirical relation for the transient jet respectively. The prediction scheme has shown reasonably good accuracy especially in prediction of main flow parameters of a transient, high speed compressible gas jet issuing into a dissimilar surrounding gas(binary gas mixture jet).No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712611991Experimental and Theoretical Study on a Transient, Turbulent Free Hydrogen Gas Jet Issuing into Still Air2741ENEijiTomitaYoshisukeHamamoto10.18926/15414Distributions of hydrogen gas concentration in a suddenly started, single shot hydrogen gas jet issuing from a 1 mm diameter injector into still air were measured using laser interferometry method. This unsteady, turbulent free jet flow has also been calculated using the two-equation, high Reynolds number version of k- turbulence model and hybrid scheme for treating combined diffusion and convection in the SIMPLE algorithm. The injection pressure was 0.5 MPa for which predicted and measured temporal jet tip penetration distributions indicate that the jet discharged into still air at Mach 0.25. The level of agreement between present prediction and measurement is good in some regions and poor in others.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712711992Process Fault Diagnosis using Neural Networks and Fault Tree Analysis Information3344ENYukiyasuShimadaKazuhikoSuzukiHayatoshiSayama10.18926/15391Neural nets have recently become the focus of much attention, largely because of their wide range of complex and nonlinear problems. This paper presents a new integrated approach using neural networks for diagnosing process failures. The fault propagation in process is modeled by causal relationships from the fault tree and its minimal cut sets. The measurement patterns required for training and testing the neural network were obtained from fault propagation model. The network is able to diagnose even in the presence of malfunction of certain sensors. We demonstrate via a nitric acid cooler process how the neural network can learn and successfully diagnose the faults.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712421990Movement of Sand around Revetment under Water Pressure Variation6778ENHiroshiNagoShiroMaeno10.18926/15501Many hydraulic structures are damaged by under flood flow and storm waves year after year. Many cases of dike and breakwater failure are caused by the suck out of sand from behind the revetment. This type of failure will be in close relation to the dynamic behavior of sand bed around the revetment. In this paper, from this point of view, we investigated the basic characteristics of such sand movement by small model tests and tried to explain the hydro- and soil-mechanical mechanism of this phenomenon theoretically.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Measurement System of Biomechanical Properties for Portable Use4550ENHisaoOka10.18926/19666It is difficult to evaluate a biomechanical properties quantitatively. The authors developed the measurement system of biomechanical properties formerly but it is on a large scale because of the use of personal computer. In this study, the portable measurement system of biomechanical impedance/mobility is developed. To establish a rapid measurement, a random vibration is adopted in input signal. The system consists of the measuring probe, amplifier, and a note-typed personal computer. The measurement probe is developed newly, and has an overall length of 9 p (without a handle) and a total weight of about 500 g. The measurement program is also developed and is available to any computer which is worked under MS DOS compatible in Windows 95/98 operating system. The biomechanical spectra of thigh, temple and forehead are obtained and they show three typical spectrum patterns.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713321999Acousticmyogram Measured with Electrosimulation During Muscle Fatigue3944ENHisaoOka10.18926/19663The acousicmyogram (AMG) is a mechanical phenomenon recorded at the surface of an active muscle. It is used to monitor force production, fatigue, and contractile properties of muscle. In this study, the new electrode with accelerometer for electrostimulation and acoustic detection. It consists of Ag-AgCl active electrode and solid-gel annular groud, and a very light piezoresistive accelerometer. The recorded AMG waveform depends on the pulse amplitude and duration of stimulation current and its lag from the electroatimulation is about 7 ms. The strengh-duration (S-D) curve (the threshold current for stimulation vs. pulse duration) describes the excitability of muscle. The left forearm is electrostimulated by using the same electrode and the muscle vibration (AMG) is recorded with accelerometer. During the muscle fatigue, the S-D curve changes and the current threshold increases under the same pulse duration. The rheobase of S-D curve increases gradually but the chronaxie hardly changes during muscle fatigue.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071321-21998Internal Structure and Viscoelasticity Estimation by a Mechanical Impedance - In case of a vibrating disk -1522ENMasahiroMoriHisaoOka10.18926/19634In a stiffness estimation of living body, an internal structure under the skin influences the measured results. Because a different stiffness of body caused by bones and muscles is obtained. In this paper, by using a measurement system of mechanical impedance, the relations between a viscoelasticity and a distance from the surface of silicone-gel model is calculated. This relation is applied to silicone-gel tumor model and a shape and a viscoelasticity of semi-sphere silicone-gel tumous are estimated. The obtained results are expressed as a reconstructed 3-D image of shape / viscoelasticity. The revised curve-fitting of mechanical impedance and the cancellation of peripheral vibration influence are proposed in order to increase an estimation acccuracy.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713121997Estimation of Loosening of Knee Joint Prosthesis2937ENHisaoOkaMasakazuOhshima10.18926/19592Knee replacement arthroplasty is indicated for the patient with advanced knee pain, knee deformation, and knee functional disorder. The aim of this study was to estimate loosening after a knee replacement arthroplasty. Loosening is measured by a frequency response function, and mobility by random vibration. The modal parameters for the knee joint are obtained by applying a modal analysis to the frequency response function. The values decrease as the knee joint prosthesis loosened. These parameters serve as an index for the condition between a thighbone and the prosthesis. The various indexes will greatly clarify the stage of advance in the loosening of knee-joint prostheses.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713121997Estimation of Internal Viscoelasticity by Mechanical Impedance2127ENHisaoOkaTakahikoNakamura10.18926/19591In evaluating the stiffness of skin surface, internal structures such as bone and muscle often affect the measurements. In the present paper, acoustic random vibration is used to estimated the viscoelasticity of a silicone-gel model. This viscoelasticity, which includes two different stiffness strata, is first estimated using a mechanical impedance spectrum, which describes the relation between the depth and viscoelasticity of internal objects. This method is applied to the depth of a silicone-gel tumor model measured by ultrasound imaging and the viscoelasticity of internal gel can be accurately estimated.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712421990Basic Characteristics of Microvibration on the Skin Surface3140ENHisaoOkaTatsumaYamamoto10.18926/15495A small vibration on the body surface is expected to apply to a clinical examination of the autonomic nervous system. The vibration cannot be found by the naked eyes. It is called a microvibration (MV) or a minor tremor (MT). It is not cleared out why and how the MV occurs, but many papers about its occurrence and clinical application have been published. In this study, the typical spectrum of MV and the various causes of MV occurrence are studied. The relationships of MV with heart rate, muscle contraction and MV are discussed. The power spectrum of MV is obtained by using an autoregressive model.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712511990Second Harmonic Detection of Atmospheric Trace Gases with a Train-Pulse Driven Lead-Salt Tunable Diode Laser for an Operation at Peltier Cooling Temperature3750ENMoncefBouzidiRyujiKogaOsamiWadaNaokiKagawaXuHaiMegumiKosakaHiroyaSano10.18926/15488Is proposed a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer system which employs a pulsed current to drive the diode laser still implementing a second-harmonic detection methods enhancing a signal to noise up to 104 times that the case without it. This system affords the lead-salt diode laser a higher operating temperature which allows a more compact deep cooling system. A principle is based on employing a gated integrator between the preamplifier and the lock-in amplifier. Investigations are made on the optimum selection of the gating aperture time interval as determined by response time of the infrared detector and the pulse width of the laser driving current.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712411989Measurement of Microvibration on the Skin Surface7380ENHisaoOkaYoshitakeYamamotoTatsumaYamamoto10.18926/15479There is a small vibration which goes undetected by the naked eyes. It is called a microvibration (MV) or a minor tremor (MT). The MV on the body surface is expected to apply to a clinical examination of the autonomic nervous system. It is not cleared why and how the MV occurs, but there are many papers about its occurrence and clinical
application. In this study, MV measuring system, its estimation and basic characteristics are examined. The difference between head MV and thenar MV, individual MV and diurnal and seasonal change are discussed. The power spectrum of MV is obtained using an autoregressive model.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712411989Measurement of Emotional Response by Similarity in Patterns of Galvanic Skin Reflex6372ENYoshitakeYamamotoHisaoOkaTatsumaYamamoto10.18926/15476There is no doubt that many people feel the peace of mind or the pleasures of senses in appreciating music. But the estimation of the effect is very difficult and the objective estimation can be hardly done. This study proposed the objective estimating method of human emotion utilizing galvanic skin reflex (GSR) which reflects a human psychological activity. In this method, not by individual response, but by the series of response and pattern of appearance of GSR, the emotional response under appreciating music was investigated. In the case of appreciation of the same classic music to several subjects, the individual GSR responses are random and remarkable characteristic could not be find on the results. However, on the patterns of appearance of GSR, the patterns obtaining from the same generation are much similar each other and the patterns obtaining from different generation are less similar. It was cleared that the same music gave different effect on different generations.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712311988Transient Displacement Response to Pulse Excitations on Periodontal Tissues4960ENHisaoOkaTatsumaYamamoto10.18926/15465In the field of dental study it is most fundamental and necessary to estimate the condition of periodontium. In order to examine a mechanical characteristics of periodontium, the theoretical displacement response to periodontal mechanical model (three elements model) are strictly solved in case of some pulse excitations. Impact excitations (rectangular, triangular and half-cycle sine pulse) are given in physical and mathematical definitions and complete solutions to the impact excitations are provided. The triangular pulse excitation which is obtained by means of a fracture of pencil-lead is most suitable. The mechanical parameters of periodontium are given using this input excitation. This is experimentally confirmed by artificial tooth model. The obtained mechanical characteristic of the periodontal tissues can be applied to clinical diagnosis.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071221988Measurement of Biomechanical Impedance - Its device and measuring conditions114ENHisaoOkaTatsumaYamamoto10.18926/15446Biomechanical impedance is relatively small compared to industrial mechanical impedance. Thus it is difficult to measure it precisely. A biomechanical impedance measuring system was developed for portable use by means of random excitation. This system doesn't require a fixed body and vibrator supporting apparatus. In order to obtain an impedance spectrum, the FFT processing is performed using a personal computer. The spectra of the biomechanical impedance which is measured on body surfaces depend on body positions and can be roughly classified into three spectra patterns : soft, stiff and intermediate. During the measurement, the measuring conditions (preload, diameter of the vibrating tip etc.) influence the results. However, it became clear that the linearity of the biomechanical impedance was satisfied in the limited measuring conditions. Accordingly it is possible to standardize the impedance and to compare it with the results under different measuring conditions.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712611991Application of the Adjoint Spectrum to the Frequency Tracking in Spectrometry with Tunable Diode Lasers Suffering from Temperature Drift4349ENMoncefBouzidiRyujiKogaOsamiWadaNaokiKagawaMegumiKosaka10.18926/15416A numerical technique called as "adjoint spectrum" has been proposed by the authors in a previous work. Two applications of it are presented here. It is demonstrated that by generalizing the aspect of adjoint spectrum it becomes possible to measure densities of mixed gases simultaneously. An experimental proof of this has been carried on and simultaneous measurement of densities of both methane and dinitrogen oxide was realized. On the other hand, it is also reported that frequency shifting of spectra, which is a cause of error in spectrometric measurements, can be corrected by exploiting the adjoint spectrum technique in connection with the Taylor expansion. Numerical examples showing the success of this method are reported as well.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712921995Estimation of Body Structure by Biomechanical Impedance2937ENHisaoOkaTakashiFukuda10.18926/15415In the stiffness evaluation from the skin surface, the body structure under the skin, like a bone and muscle, influences on the measurement results. The authors developed the measurement system of biomechanical impedance with applying a vibration of acoustic frequency onto the body surface. We measured the viscoelasticity of the silicone-gel model, which involves metal blocks, from
the gel surface by using this system. The internal structure of model is estimated from the relation between the viscoelasticity and the distance from the gel surface to the internal block. Applying this method, the shape of ribs of the right chest are estimated. The shapes and viscoelasticity of silicone-gel tumor model, which has two different tumors, are also estimated.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712721993Tooth Mobility Measurement of Dental Implants1117ENHisaoOkaTatsumaYamamoto10.18926/15400The use of dental implants has increased together with increases in the human life span and it has become an imperative subject for dentists to familiarize themselves with this treatment modality. Unfortunately, there has been no practical and quantitative method for in vivo evaluation of the stability of dental implants. In the tooth mobility examination, the tactile sense of natural teeth is different from that of dental implants. The authors have developed an automatic diagnosis system of tooth mobility for clinical use. The biomechanical mobility of peri-implantium is measured with a pseudo-random vibration, from which the viscoelasticity c1, c2, k of peri-implantium is obtained. The diagnosis system has been applied to the quantitative evaluation of the stability of implants : endodontics endosseous implants (titanium pin), endosseous implants (Bioceram). It has also been applied to the evaluation of the long-term prognoses of dental implantation (Bioceram) and the examination of Intramobile implant (IMZ), and the satisfactory results have been obtained.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713021996Estimation of Muscle Fatigue of Low Back upon the Muscle Stiffness1520ENHisaoOkaShiroFujiwara10.18926/15393An estimation of muscle fatigue is very important study and many laboratory researchers had done actively in this field. The excellent measurement and analysis methods, however, have not established yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the muscle fatigue of low back, caused by sitting on the vehicle seat for a long time. The muscle viscoelasticity and the EMG (Electromyogram) were measured. The authors proposed the objective muscle fatigue index that was obtained from the result of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) by using the measured varlables. The objective muscle fatigue index suggests an adequate correlation with the subjective fatigue on the vehicle seat.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712511990Pumping Test for Multilayered Aquifers5969ENIichiroKohnoMakotoNishigaki10.18926/15492In this paper, we propose a method to determine the coefficients of permeability of the unconfined aquifer consisted of two different permeability layers. With mixing the conventional pumping test and falling head permeability test, the coefficients of permeabilitiy k(1) and k(2) were obtained. The validity of the proposed method is investigated by using the numerical simulation. As the results, it becomes apparent that the proposed method is applicable to real hydarulic problems.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712821994A Study on the Elasto-plastical Constitutive Equation for Unsaturated Soil5975ENMakotoNishigakiIichiroKohno10.18926/15463In this paper, first, an elasto-plastic consitituve equation for unsaturated soil was developed by considering of the basically behavior of unsaturated soil. Second, the results of a number of triaxial test and a set of rigid
foundation model tests were simulated by using this constitutive equation, the agreement between observed and computed results was satisfactory and confirms the possibilities of this constitutive equation.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712811993Drain System Around the Underground Cavern87128ENIichiroKonoMakotoNishigaki10.18926/15442In recent years, construction or planning of large-scale underground structures, such as underground power plants, underground oil storage plants and nuclear power plants have been coming into consideration in Japan. To construct such as large-scale underground structures, one of the most important problems is to make clear beforehand the behavior of groundwater around these structures and the other is to carry out proper countermeasure of groundwater, so that these structures can be constructed safely and maintained stability over a long time period.
This report describes the results of theoretical studies on the drain systems and at the same time, discusses the drain systems around the underground cavern for the practical underground power stations.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712811993Numerical Analysis of Salt Intrusion into Aquifer by Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element Method7185ENMakotoNishigakiIichiroKohno10.18926/15440In this paper, method of Eulerian Lagrangian numerical analysis is used to described Advection-Dispersion phenomena. The influence of concentration to the density of fluid is considered. A laboratory model of a two dimensional confined aquifer containing an isotropic, homogeneous porous medium (Hosokawa et.al 1989) was used to validate the applicability of Advection-Dispersion of numerical analysis with steady and unsteady state condition [1].No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712711992Advection Dispersion by Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element Method93105ENMakotoNishigakiIchiroKohno10.18926/15398In this paper the author will be describe phenomena of advection dispersion in subsurface flow by using Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element Method. Where Finite Element Method with Galerkin formulation and weigthed residual method is used to solve seepage and advection dispersion equation. The problem of one dimensional and two dimensional rectangular wave are analyzed in this paper. And the result of numerical analyses will be compared with analytical solutions. The numerical results showed the very good agreement with the analytical solutions.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712511990Preparation of ZnO Films by Activated Reactive Evaporation Method2335ENYoshinariMiuraJunTakadaAkiyoshiOsakaToshioKawamura10.18926/15486Zinc oxide films were prepared on silica glass substrates by the use of an r.f. activated reactive evaporation (ARE) method, and were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). XRD measurements indicate that the films were c-axis oriented and that an r.f. plasma of Zn and O was necessary for the ZnO film deposition. Substrate temperature, oxygen gas pressure, evaporation rate, r.f. power and inlet position of oxygen gas effect the c-axis orientation, the growth rate and the microstructure of the films. Optimum conditions for a dense film with a fine texture of the surface and having good crystallinity were as follows: the substrate temperature;400, the evaporation rate;5.0(A)/s, the oxygen pressure;2.0x10(-4) Torr, the r.f. power;150 to 200W, and the oxygen gas inlet near the substrate. For the film prepared under the optimum conditions, the standard deviation@Ё@of the rocking curve for the (002) diffraction was 1.9deg, smaller than that of the film prepared by using an r.f. sputtering method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712411989The Diffusion of Sodium Ions into Tin Oxide Thin Films from Glass Substrates5361ENAkiyoshiOsakaKiichiOdaJunTakadaYoshinariMiura10.18926/15474Electrical resistance and X-ray photoelectron depth profile analysis are studied for antimony doped tin oxide films developed on silica, alkali-free and sodalime slide glass substrates. The sodium ions diffused from the substrates to the films prevented the crystal growth of rutile type tin oxide in the film, resulting in the high electrical resistance. A diffusion layer has been detected for each film with diffuse profiles of multi valent cations (Sn, Si or Ca) at the interface of the tin oxide film and substrate. A greater amount of sodium atoms have been detected in the film developed on the soda-lime glass while almost no sodium atoms have been found in those on the other substrates. This can be explained by the diffusion of the sodium ions in the substrate due to a drastic hydronium-sodium exchange mechanism under highly acidic conditions during the dipping and drying processes.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712621992Preparation of Mullite Dispersed Silica Ceramics through Sol-Gel Processing6167ENAkiyoshiOsakaTokuroNanbaJunTakadaYoshinariMiura10.18926/15473Mullite-dispersed silica ceramics were prepared through sol-gel processing by the use of tetraethoxy silane, aluminium nitrate and aluminium isopropoxide as the Si and Al sources where HCl and HN0(3) were the catalyst. Effect of the starting materials, solvents and catalysts was examined on the gelation time or temperature of mullite precipitation. Apparent activation energy of gelation ranged from 80 to 95kJ/mol. The presence of AI in the sols elongated the gelling time suggesting the formation of chelate bonds between AI and Si-OR or Si-OH bonds.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712821994Chemical States of Fluorine Atoms and Laser-Induced Crystallization in rf-Sputtered Thin Films of Amorphous Lead Fluorosilicate7784ENAkiyoshiOsakaYoshinariMiura10.18926/15464Amorphous films of lead oxyfluorosilicate were prepared with a rf-sputtering technique, and the distribution profiles of the component elements and chemical states of the fluoride ions were analyzed with an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. Si atoms with an expanded coordination, O(4)Si-F, were present near the surface, and O(3)Si-F units were present in the deeper part of the films. Electrical resistance indicated transition to a
conduction state for the films containing fluoride ions, while the films were crystallized to precipitate low quartz by the irradiation of He-Ne laser of 3 mW up to 1 sec.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712311988Amorphous Oxides Prepared from Organometallic Compounds Part2. Structure Evolution in Sodium Borosilicate Gels3948ENAkiyoshiOsakaYoshinariMiuraKatsuakiTakahashi10.18926/15462Sodium borosilicate gels of compositions similar to that of Vycor(R) glass like 80SiO(2).15B(2)O(3).5Na(2)O (wt%) were prepared from hydrolysis and polycondensation of metal alkoxides under the HCl catalysis. Variation of specific surface area and porosity with temperature indicated that closed pores were opened below 400, and collapsed above 450 after the porosity reached a maximum value around 450. The structural evolution was examined due to IR spectra and a phase separation in the gels was observed. The solubility of the gels into 1N-HCl was studied as a function of the treatment temperature.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712311988Amorphous Oxides Prepared from Organometallic Compounds Part 1. Preparation of Sodium Borosilicate Gels3138ENYoshinariMiuraAkiyoshiOsakaKatsuakiTakahashi10.18926/15459Sodium borosilicate gels of compositions similar to that of Vycor(R) glass like 80SiO(2).15B(2)O(3).5Na(2)O(wt%) were prepared from hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate, trimethyl borate, and sodium methylate under the HCl catalysis. Variation of the gelation time is examined as a function of the mixing ratio of the starting materials and the catalyst. The thermal behavior of the gels has been discussed on the basis of their TG and DTA traces.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712921995Effect of Alcohol on Bioactivity of Glasses8388ENKanjiTsuruChikaraOhtsukiAkiyoshiOsaka10.18926/15428One of the CaO,SiO(2)-based bioactive glasses(5OCaO 5OSiO (2) in mol%) were soaked for various periods in a simulated body fluid(SBF) with or without containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol. Effect of the alcohols was investigated on the apatite formation on the glass surface with thin-film X-ray diffraction, FT-IR reflection spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Under the presence of alcohols up to 0.1mol/l in the SBF an apatite layer was formed on the glass, while it consisted of crystallites similar in morphology but
larger in size than that found for the SBF without the alcohols. It was concluded that the alcohols little influenced the the apatite forming ability of the CaO,SiO(2)-based glasses.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00712921995Ultrasonic Implantation of Bioactive Glass Particles into Poly(methyl methacrylate) Substrates7781ENKanjiTsuruChikaraOhtsukiAkiyoshiOsaka10.18926/15426Poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates were immersed in suspensions containing bioactive 50CaO50SiO(2) (mol%) glass particles (45 m in diameter) and a 6:4 (volume fraction) mixture of ethanol and THF, and an ultrasonic energy was applied to the system. A layer of glass particles was implanted and covered more than 50% of the substrate surface. Thin film X-ray diffraction patterns and FT-IR reflection spectra indicated deposition of apatite on the glass-implanted substrates after they were soaked for 12 h in a simulated body fluid similar in apatite-deposition ability to the human blood plasma. Flake-like apatite crystallites formed on the substrate soaked in SBF for 3 days.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004Serration and Reversion Treatment in Al-10mass%Zn Alloy14ENAkiraSakakibaraTerutoKanadani10.18926/46946The relationship between occurrence of serration and reversion heat treatment was studied by tensile test on Al-10mass%Zn alloy. Serration was observed for the furnace cooled specimen, but not for the as-quenched one and the shortly aged one, which result is difficult to be interpreted by the Cottrell theory. The stress amplitude in the serration increased with increasing the time of annealing for reversion up to 10ks and then stayed at a constant value which might be interpreted by the Cottrell theory. The stress amplitude in the serration decreased with increasing the annealing
temperature, which is contrary to the prediction by the Cottrell theory. The specimen directly annealed without aging and the one annealed after aging agreed well with each other in the tensile strength and the stress amplitude in the serration, which suggests solute clusters as the cause of serration.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00714012006An Eye-Contour Extraction Algorithm from Face Image usingDeformable Template Matching7882ENNobuoFunabikiMegumiIsogaiTeruoHigashino10.18926/14125A variety of studies on face components such as eyes, lips, noses, and teeth have been proceeding in medicine, psychology, biometrics authentication, and other areas. In this paper, we present an algorithm of extracting eye contours from a face image using the deformable template matching method. Our template for an eye contour is composed of three quadratic functions for the perimeter and one circle for the pupil. In our algorithm, a digital color face image is rst converted to a binary image of representing eyes, after the region around eyes is identied on the face image by using hues and values of the color
image. Then, parameters in the template are optimized by a local search method with a tabu period and a hill-climbing, so as to t the template to the eye contour in the binary
image. The accuracy of our algorithm is evaluated through sample face images of students.
In addition, the application of our proposal to eye shape indices is investigated in a face image database "HOIP", where recognizable dierence exists in index distributions between males and females.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115472013ContentsENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115462012ContentsENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002contents / back coverENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002cover / title pageENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713612001contents / back coverENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713612001cover / title pageENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713722003contents / back coverENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713722003cover / title pageENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713712002contents / back coverENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713712002cover / title pageENFaculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004contents / back coverENNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-0071381-22004cover / title pageENNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115452011ContentsENNo potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115472013Overviews of Optimization Techniques for Geometric Estimation118ENKenichiKanatani10.18926/49320We summarize techniques for optimal geometric estimation from noisy observations for computer
vision applications. We first discuss the interpretation of optimality and point out that geometric
estimation is different from the standard statistical estimation. We also describe our noise
modeling and a theoretical accuracy limit called the KCR lower bound. Then, we formulate estimation
techniques based on minimization of a given cost function: least squares (LS), maximum
likelihood (ML), which includes reprojection error minimization as a special case, and Sampson
error minimization. We describe bundle adjustment and the FNS scheme for numerically solving
them and the hyperaccurate correction that improves the accuracy of ML. Next, we formulate
estimation techniques not based on minimization of any cost function: iterative reweight, renormalization,
and hyper-renormalization. Finally, we show numerical examples to demonstrate that
hyper-renormalization has higher accuracy than ML, which has widely been regarded as the most
accurate method of all. We conclude that hyper-renormalization is robust to noise and currently is
the best method.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama1349-6115462012Calibration of Ultra-Wide Fisheye Lens Cameras by Eigenvalue Minimization1020ENKenichiKanatani10.18926/48126We present a new technique for calibrating ultra-wide fisheye lens cameras by imposing the constraint that collinear points be rectified to be collinear, parallel lines to be parallel, and orthogonal lines to be orthogonal. Exploiting the fact that line fitting reduces to an eigenvalue problem, we do a rigorous perturbation analysis to obtain a Levenberg-Marquardt procedure for the optimization. Doing experiments, we point out that spurious solutions exist if collinearity and parallelism alone are imposed. Our technique has many desirable properties. For example, no metric information is required about the reference pattern or the camera position, and separate stripe patterns can be displayed on a video screen to generate a virtual grid, eliminating the grid point extraction processing.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.Faculty of Engineering, Okayama UniversityActa Medica Okayama0475-00713622002Cytotoxicity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Protein against Mammalian Cells6166ENMasashiYamagiwaAkitoshiNambaTetsuyukiAkaoEiichiMizukiMichioOhbaHiroshiSakai10.18926/47026The crystal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp, israelensis (Bti) and subsp. coreanensis A1519 strain were examined for the cytotoxicity against MOLT-4 and HeLa cells by MTT assay and LDH assay, The A1519 crystal proteins processed by proteinase K exhibited the specific cell-killing activity toward MOLT-4 with little damage to the cell membrane, On the other hand, the Bti crystal proteins processed by proteinase K caused the substantial damage to the cell membrane of both MOLT-4 and HeLa, leading to the cell lysis. The non-digested crystal proteins of both strains exhibited no cytotoxicity, These data suggested that while the Bti crystal proteins caused the colloid-osmotic swelling and cell lysis of MOLT-4 and HeLa, the proteinase K-digested A1519 crystal proteins induced the specific cell death of MOLT-4 through a mechanism other than that of Bti.No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.