Quality control in mass-reared melon files, Bactricera cucurbitae, after eradication is discussed, based on the results of artificial selection experiments. First, a brief history of quality control in mass-rearing of insects is described. In practical mass-rearing of melon fly, many traits habe already been differentiated between mass-reared and wild files. These differing traits are reviewed and the factors which caused these differences are considered. It was considered that the differences between wild and mass-reared melon files depended on the selection pressures from the mass-rearing method. Next, the results of several artificial selection experiments using the melon fly are reviewed. Finally, consideration is given to some correlated responses to artificial selection in mass-rearing. Longevity that is correlated to early fecundity was successfully controlled by artificial selection for reproduction in the mass-rearing system. On the basis of these results, an improved method for quality control in mass-reared melon fly with considerations for quantitative genetics is discussed.