Basic prohlems are discussed about a local, realtime and very sensitive air-pollution monitoring using a laser diode. The method employs the second derivative spectrometry replacing the incoherent light source and mechanical choppers in a traditional method with the laser diode and a newly developed electronic system. Etalon fringes at this system becomes the dominant noise source and its statistic and dynamical features are to be understood. Numerical examination was done for the optimal width of optical frequency modulation. A very fast measurement of weak absorption spectra became possible by the development of lock-in-amplifiers with finite integration time instead of a low-pass filter. Spectra of methane in 7.6 μm region and a time-dependent spectrum
of the etaIon fringe are shown.