1) Significantly high complement level was observed in patients with malignant lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, Behcet's disease, cancer (except for hepatoma) and preangiitis syndrome. 2) It is suggested that most of elevated CH50 in Behcet's disease are correlated with an inflammation. 3) Raised CH50 in diabetes mellitus, differed from that of Behcet's disease, was concerned with other factor than an inflammation, but not with blood sugar level. 4) C1 titer was more increased in diabetes mellitus than in Behcet's disease. In arteriosclerosis C1 titer was significantly increased too, so that it is suggested that high complement level in patients with diabetes mellitus is correlated with vasclar damage.