The diagnosis of cancers by meas of polarography is of a common practice in clinics and among others the Protein Index Method devised by Muller is considered to be quite useful for the identification of cancer bearing persons from normal person. With this Protein Index Method, the authors comparee the protein indices of patients beating various cancers with those of normal persons, and also studied the changes in the protein index before and after the operation performed on stomach cancer, gastro-duodenal ulcers, and stomach polyps in order to find out the relationship between the changes in symptoms and the Protein Index. As the results the following points were clarified. Although the serum reaction of polarography is non-specific and hence is not sufficiently applicable to all kinde of cancer, it does show significant differences in gastro-duodenal ulcer group and stomach cancer group. It is also valuable method for the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. It seems that this is one of the methods also useful for knowing a possible recurrence of stomach cancer by meanse of the changes in the Protein Index befor and after the surgical operation.